Professional activity of an expert in Physical Education and sports is largely governed by knowledge and skills of communicative nature connected with organization and implementation of business and interpersonal communication, that’s why the problem of forming communicative competence of footballers is of great importance. At times sportspeople, differing the high level of professional knowledge, skills and abilities, having necessary physical training but at the same time not managing the rules of interaction with other players, are absolutely helpless in communicating process with a trainer because any communication is effective only when people interacting with each other, are component in this situation [4, 6].
We revealed, relying on achievements of pedagogical science and our own experience, that the leading place is occupied by communicative component in the structure of professional activity of a sportsman-footballer when we participated in the championships on football in different zones of Russia, including the commands, becoming champions in different regions of the country. Communicative activity of a sportsman is a difficult multi-channel system of interaction «sportsman-sportsman», «trainer-sportsman», «sportsman-referee»; the main sides (processes) of this system are:
● communicative (providing of information exchange);
● interactive (organization of communication);
● perceptional (mutual understanding).
It is carried out as a socially significant, purposeful and specially organized by a trainer process of interaction with the use of previously thought over forms of communication, content and structure of relations with partners in a team and an opponent, with trainers and referees, at last, with the audience.
The successful action of communicative activities assumes sportsman-footballer’s grasp of professional competence providing realization of communicative activities in case of the solution of problems to solve by means of the control of communication processes in a certain game situation.
Communicative competence is consisted in human ability to realize and control his social behavior, to understand behavior of others, to understand reasons of origin of this or that emotional state, to own communication mechanisms which are necessary for successful achievement of these activities, in ability to see communicative problems in the activities, ability to formulate them and look for ways of their adequate resolution.
All above-mentioned elements characterize communicative «profile» of sportsman’s professional activity as he should be able to establish psychological contact with partners in a team and an opponent, with trainers and referees, with the audience, to control communication process, to have formed speech and reflexive abilities, to have formed personal qualities: benevolence, tactfulness, objectivity, tolerance, organized nature, initiative and others, to be capable to solve non-standard problems structurally which arise in the process of competitive and training activities [2, 3].
We consider communicative competence as a necessary component of common cultural and professional development of a personality because it allows to provide personal and professional formation of a future specialist and it optimizes process of professional activity.
Certainly, it is possible to use communicative competence in the context of the analysis of sportsman’s professional activity.
Analyzing the different points of view concerning the structure of professional communicative competence in particular a sportsman-footballer, influencing on game skill, it’s included both the most narrow and extremely wide set of mental, social qualities, processes, knowledge and communicative skills [1, 7]. We pointed out the following principal components of the content of communicative competence: cognitive, communicative, organizational and operational, reflexive:
● cognitive – the system of knowledge allowing a sportsman to organize effective communication according to purposes and conditions of his professional and interpersonal interaction:
– knowledge about rules of professional behavior;
– knowledge about communication and its types, phases, regularities of development, existing communication methods and techniques, their action, possibilities and limitations;
– knowledge about effective methods for different people and different situations;
– knowledge of the level of development of these or those communicative abilities and of methods which are effective for me or aren’t effective;
● communicative – the system of skills of interaction with people (a trainer, teammates, with referees), allowing to realize communication adequated to a certain type of situations and situational tasks and respectively includes:
– ability of a sportsman to positive interaction with a trainer, teammates;
– ability to build communicative relations on the basis of knowledge of problems and features of the sporting professional environment;
– readiness for practical activities according to the solution of professional tasks on the basis of grasp of professional lexicon;
– ability to analyze and project communicative activities taking into account professional environment and concrete personality;
– ability to find optimal forms of communication with partners for effective implementation of professional potential;
– ability to perceive and make verbal, nonverbal and paralinguistic signals, abilities to perceive expressional verbal, nonverbal and paralinguistic signals which a partner would prefer to hide;
– ability to define personal traits and emotional states of other people;
● organizational and operational – is characterized by the presence of the following skills of a sportsman:
– ability to act in the interests of a collective, to concern respectively to members of a group, to organize optimal communication with partners in case of the action of joint activities;
– use of psychological and pedagogical technologies in the process of interaction with partners; control, correction of results of activities according to desired goals;
● reflexive – is characterized by stable motivation of self-knowledge, self-development and self-improvement in communicative activities:
– readiness for manifestation of responsibility for a work on hand;
– ability to solve problems independently and effectively in the field of professional activity;
– ability to save internal autonomy during interaction;
– ability of adequate self-evaluation;
– empathy and social reflection (as a result of systematic contacts partners acquire the most different knowledge about themselves, about partners, about activities methods etc.).
We are of the opinion that these components define the content of professional and communicative competence.
It is necessary to notice that communicative competence provides the high level of professional competence of a sportsman – footballer as it assumes knowledge in the field of communication (social-psychological mechanisms, styles, methods and stages), professional abilities (use of techniques of effective communication, establishment of contact, submission of back coupling, behavior in business communication, active listening and conflict resolution), and also professionally significant personal qualities of a specialist (empathy, reflexivity, sociability, psychological facility, ability to cooperation, emotional attractiveness) .
Formation of professional and communicative competence of sportspeople-footballers will be the purposeful process of the systematized accumulation of knowledge, abilities, skills, allowing to realize professional and communicative activities effectively which will include carrying out the analysis of a game situation, determination of optimum methods of its resolution and achievement of a purpose by means of processes control of professional communication.
Therefore, the technology of communicative competence formation of a professional sportsman-footballer represents the general-purpose tool for the design of the trainer process in the educational and sporting club, including:
● precision and multiple-level system in setting goals;
● numerical composition and high-quality filling of studies by methods of training including pedagogical devices and created game situations, and forms of organization of training (paired, group, collective, individually isolated);
● organizational and pedagogical conditions focused on high-quality conversion of personal and psychological, communicative and pragmatist, valuable and semantic components of sportsman’s personality which as a whole provide ease and confidence in communication, psychological rapport and communicative compatibility, and also active position in interaction with partners in a command, a trainer [5, 7].
All this in the aggregate provides a basis of functioning of a professional team, including principle of professionalism and competence which as a result has the impact on results of display in competitions.