Projective culture of a person is rather a new concept. It has entered into scientific use with the developing of technologies of "social engineering". Meanwhile such property and ability in many respects are initially peculiar to a person because one of the basic characteristics of a "cultural person" is his ability to projective activity, i.e. to productive imagination, creative and free transformation of the reality based on a model of the desirable future. This ability is set by the main point of culture, which is first of all a set of projective ways and results of development and transformation of the world of nature, society and a person himself. The projective culture is a basic characteristic of personality of a teacher and it is formed at the intersection of three components: a system of polycomponental qualities of a person including base and peripheral properties; theoretical and practical readiness of a teacher to projective activity, and also a system of specialized technologies which a person should master during education.
The theoretical analysis based on the generalization of works in the sphere of social and cultural projection has allowed us to define projective culture as an integrative social and cultural phenomenon, which objectifies a level of development of methodological culture of a teacher. It also has allowed us to offer the following structure of a projective culture: abilities-purposes-values-knowledge-methods.
As an integrated qualitative property of a professional activity, the projective culture is characterized by following features: aspiration to purposeful reorganization of the society; valuable orientability and realizability; refusal from a gnosiscentrism in a projective activity; a criterion character of selection of alternative pedagogical means, their dependence on necessity of realization of specific function, probable character of possible decisions.
Abilities are certain inclinations of a personality. Their development suggests the success of its functioning in different spheres of activity, and with reference to projection - in general, in society, in life. Values are an ethics, philosophy of a profession - its methodology and at the same time - the attitude of the subject to object. Purposes are the desirable results which the teacher anticipates understanding the essence of culture, his profession, experience of today´s social and cultural situation, understanding certain problems. Knowledge and methods are instructions about the purposes and ways of activity.
The conditions of mastering the projective culture by a person are the following: motivation of a person to mastering the projective culture and the worked out complex of pedagogical actions for mastering the methodology of projection; the content of education fixed in educational programs; the organization of process of projection as systemforming activity; consideration of education as a process, directed to the expansion of opportunities of a competent choice by a person of his course of life and his self-development; modification of character, type, style of relations in such systems as "teacher - student", "student - teacher"; extension and deepening of life experience of students and of professional skills of teachers; variety of kinds of activity and ways of development of the understanding the reality by the subjects of educational process; socialization of students, increase of their creative potential, motivation of achievements, creation of situation of success, formation of a stable cognitive necessity; self-realization, self-actualization of subjects of the educational process.
The main functions of a teacher´s projective culture are based on the specific character of his activity, variety of types of relations and communication, system of value understanding, opportunities of a person´s creative self-realization. These functions have the following characteristics: humanistic, individuallycreative (aimed at the person´s formation, development of his subjectiveness), proactive (prevention of possible negative manifestations in educational process of poly-cultured groups); cultural and creative (determines the abilities of a future teacher to stand to reformative relation to pedagogical sphere and to his own vital actions); regulatory (suggests a certain teacher´s responsibility for ensuring the succession of world, federal and regionally-municipal standards of education, for his choice of means of limits of permissible pedagogical influence); creative (inadmissible teacher´s line of conduct which allows to understand, to find the right line of conduct in non-typical situations); cognitive (which represents a complete view of the world, native and regional culture as the essential principles of the culture of a teacher´s activity). Taking into consideration the mentioned peculiarities we have singled out the following functions of projective culture: gnoseological, humanistic, communicative, informative, normative, teaching and educative.
The criteria of projective culture were defined by us from the systemic understanding of culture, the distinguishing of its structural and functional components, the interpretation of culture as a process and as a result of the development and creation of pedagogical values, technologies of the professional-creative self-realization of the personality of a teacher.
The experimental research spent on the basis of Stavropol State University, has allowed us to establish, that the basic criteria and indices that show that the projective culture of a teacher is formed are the following: a valuable attitude to pedagogical activity; readiness to the realization of projective activity; creative activity of a teacher; a degree of development of pedagogical thinking as the criterion of projective culture; aspiration to a professional-pedagogical perfection.
The technology of formation of the projective culture is based on the following conceptual ideas: the orientation of didactic process of the higher institutes of education toward the general and professional culture of the teacher; the realizations of strategy of the productive creative education, the joint activity of students and teachers; the formation of educational process in the logic of emphasizing, of amplification of senses of educative-professional work by means of cooperation and co-authorship, enrichment of motives to cognize, development and expansion of relations with professional community. The pedagogical technologies of formation of the projective culture of a future teacher are innovative; social; reflected-creative; dialogue techniques of human mutual relations; creation of the sphere of communication which is adequate for the personal growth; active methods of education; independent work; techniques of a personal reflexion.
The efficiency of the process of formation of the projective culture is defined by the following pedagogical conditions: organization of a complete pedagogical process and its orientation toward the formation of the projective culture; the creation of the humanitarian sphere of education; the integration of the content of pedagogical education; providing of students with a subjective position in educational process; development of the creativeness of students; development of reflexive positions of the subjects of educational process; orientation to the formation of innovative environment, involving the students in different types of pedagogically-psychological practical work.
- Popper K. Misery of historicism / Popper K. // Questions of Philosophy - 1992. - N9 - p.22-48.
- Genisaretsky O.I. Topical problems of project culture investigation / Genisaretsky O.I. // Technical esthetics. - 1989. - N5. - p.22-27.
- Zair-Bek Ye.S. Theoretical projecting in educational system // Zair-Bek Ye.S. - SPb., 1994. - 324 p.
- Kryukova Ye.A. Introduction into social-pedagogical projecting. // Kryukova Ye.A. - Volgograd, 1988. - 106 p.
The work was submitted to III international scientific conference «Actual problems of science and education», Cuba, March, 19-29, 2008, came to the editorial office 25.01.2008.