The Russian market of meat and meat food is being integrated into the world´s food market, the tendencies and processes of which, in their turn, influence the home meat food market state, to an increasing degree.
In present-day conditions at the high plane of all science branches development the ultimate meat product, as a rule, is a multicomponent one. Therefore, to solve the quality problem of a wide range of products, in the basis of which there is meat crude, it is necessary to think not only of the final meat processing technologies, but also, first of all, of obtaining meat system qualitative components forming the final product. The producer-enterprise is of a great importance as well, so as its technical level, assortment, pricing policy and the reputation in the market. The meat production competitiveness factors can be integrated into four groups: economical, technological, social and ecological ones.
For meat production consumers´ market assessment the population survey was held in the region (288 persons) (Fig. 1). It was found out that 58% of the respondents up to 45% of the total expenditures for nutrition spend on buying meat and meat products.
Fig. 1. Structure of consumers´ preferences for meat products of respondents of Oryol Region
The respondents´ answers study testified that no matter how high the prices on meat and meat products are, it remains one of the most preferable food stuffs ranking second after bread and baked goods in the chain. The study of consumers´ preferences for meat products testified that the greatest percentage in the structure of consumption is taken by sausage goods - 35% totally, fresh meat ranks second - 19%, then - semi-finished products - 16%, meat delicacies, canned meat, hams are in the minimal demand.
The Oryol Region meat market competitive environment assessment testified that the leading position is occupied by Moscow commodity producers. It is conditioned both by larger volumes and scales of production and wider range of meat production in price and quality. Under the existing market environment conditions in the competitive struggle the enterprise, conducting competent policy when concluding a contract on raw material supply or increasing its own meat production values, cheapening the production as the result of nonmanufacturing costs reducing, introducing modern resource-conserving technologies, wins.
The economic and financial difficulties, which the Oryol Region APC cattle raising experiences nowadays, are redoubled by the low production level and high costs. In our opinion, such a state of production can have a poisoning effect on the economics as a whole and result in negative tendencies of supplying the population with meat products in the future. Under the circumstances for the meat animals production increase it is necessary to change the fodder base development directions, concentrate the efforts and instruments on the fodder production expansion, its quality and ration balance improvement, the fodder payback promotion. The bioclimatic potential of the Oryol Region is favourable to the intensification of fodder production, green and forage production expansion, if it is remembered that in many economies there are large hay acreages and pastures.
The investigations testify that every kilogram of pasture herbage costs to the Oryol Region 2, 4 times, and the digestible protein - 3, 5 times, cheaper than grain production, permanent grasses herbage.
The accelerated development of meat industry requires the solution of a range of problems associated with the coordination of interbranch connections and productions. At the present time in Russia 34 kg of meat on a per caput basis is produced (Oryol Region - 71 kg), while the consumption (thanks to import) makes 55 kg on a per caput basis (Oryol Region - 79 kg).
The low animal production, high labour costs, and also high production goods, fuel and energy costs, the inflation result in the constant production cost development, return rate lowering.
In our opinion, the government´s role in the creation of effective market management mechanism levers should be aimed, first of all, at the creation of favourable economic conditions for the enlargement of the output, which is important with a view to national security ensuring.
As long as the problem of meat crude production for the meat processing industry is the most important and topical one, a livestock breeding development plan was launched in the Oryol Region.
The investments in the Oryol Region cattle raising from various sources in 2008-2009 will exceed 10 billion rubles. In the livestock branch 25 eight-year credit agreements totaling about 6, 8 billion rubles and 52 five-year credit agreements totaling almost 1, 7 billion rubles were contracted. The program is rated for five years. Now seven pedigree factories, six multiplying farms and 76 stud farms, where thoroughbred animals are managed.
The dynamic development of cattle raising in the Oryol Region is the consequence of its close disposition to the capital, one of the principal consumers of the food industry production, and also well-developed fodder base existence.
Together with that, despite the positive dynamics, they fail to reach cardinal changes in cattle raising so far. The livestock and poultry industries development plan, developed by the regional agriculture and food department, is tended to the disadvantages overcoming, animal products output increase and productivity enhancement in the Oryol Region for the period up to 2010.
On the other hand, the embodiment of all the livestock projects declared in the Oryol Region to the full extent can result in the glut of the whole branch. The fears concerning such a perspective are unlikely groundless. Indeed, the information that the pork production will increase 10 times in the Oryol Region in the coming three years has already been officially announced. As a result, the Oryol Region can enter the trio of leaders (after the Belgorod and Lipetsk Regions) in livestock development in the Black Earth Region.
On the ground of the represented data the Oryol Region competitive space components estimation can be characterized as a "moderate" one: the medium position among the regions of Russia encourages the Region´s competitive potential implementation. The decisive role here is played by the close interaction of the chain-work: producer - raw material supplier - production processer - sphere of finished products´ realization, its delivering to the customer and consumer response accounting.
The work is submitted to III International Scientific Conference "Problems of International Integration of National Educational Standards", April, 23-27, 2008, Czechia (Prague) - Luxembourg - France (Paris), came to the editorial office on 10.02.2008.