Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,301


Barabanova V.B.

There are a lot of different points of view on ratio of sports and physical culture. Most of Russian scientists consider sports to be a part of physical culture together with physical education, physical reaction and rehabilitation. But there are other scientists who argue that physical culture and sports only partially coincide or do not coincide at all. The fact that there are different points of view proves the complexity of the issue. Looking into the problem makes us pay attention to such crucial issues of the sport theory as the position of sports in the cultural environment and its cultural potential; problems and tendencies of sports´ development as well. Comprehension of the problem of the ratio of sports and physical culture needs to differentiate the notion of "physical culture" and "physical training". Thus, it is necessary have new views on physical culture in the terms of new historical environment should be based on researches on the cultural phenomenon. Taking into consideration the fact that there are a number of the definitions of culture the main objective of the given article is not to give an original definition; We support the definitions given by other scientists. In this case the culture is experiences of a community or a people, fixed in people´s behavior, verbal and institutional forms. These experiences comprise the system of human´s activities. According to which an individual develops social relations, changes his or her inner nature. But what is the specific feature of the physical culture? The definition of the culture should reflect the fact that the culture the integrated mechanism of the social reproduction, all parts of which interact with each other and are not autonomous. Any phenomena the individual comes across are parts of the culture - political, moral, physical, etc. Therefore theoretically the physical culture can be considered as a specific area of culture. However it is hardly possible to consider it to be a separate part of the culture. Yet at the level of socio-philosophic, cultural analysis the notion "physical culture" must reflect in the consciousness specific features of different processes for perfection of physical and spiritual conditions. In the course of these processes natural and natural-somatic characteristics of a human being gain personal characteristics. In the beginning of these processes an individual is just a living thing, biologial body then an individual turns into a subject of activity. Human somatic is a certain type of natural and social unity, possessing sensitive characteristics (due to socio-cultural transformations).It should be emphasized that "human somatic" is a category showing the changes in the human flesh in the course of social modifications; so this category should be considered together with another very important and complex category as "spirituality". These notions are interconnected. Somatic has elements of spirituality and somatic is a form of spiritual existence in the physical world. Thus, physical culture is a part of cultural phenomena connected with the development of human flesh into human somatic (having overbiological substratum) and the inclusion of the natural individual in the world of culture. The area of cultural phenomena goes together with somatic existing of human beings, their physical condition. So the latter should be treated as a specific cultural value, it is necessary to achieve its perfection and improvement. Physical culture is not a homogeneous phenomenon; on the contrary it is heterogeneous, has a complex structure and is continuously ganging. It comprises various activities related to forming, developing and perfecting of human somatic. They form areas of physical recreation, rehabilitation, education (the ways to control an individual´s movements), and upbringing. Let´s assume that sports possessing its own features in relation to each of these areas; but being homogeneous in relation to physical culture are a part of its components cannot be considered as a phenomenon outside of its areas. Physical culture in a whole and each of its areas comprises activities realizing social transformations of a human body, development of movements, physical perfection and development of personal qualities. It is sports that make an individual be aware of limits of physical development, of the perfection of an individual´s ability to move, physical force, and endurance. Meanwhile this very area an individual manifests his or her natural abilities which are necessary to maximize spiritual forces. Thus, in the area of sports to some extend enables realization and manifestation of a human being‘s existence boarders. And this applicability (essence) realizes sports within the framework of physical culture, instead of outside of them. Physical culture is the area defined, on the one hand, by nature (this area an individual begins to master after the birth, being still a natural non-social object); on the other hand the essence of all its intentions is the perfection of human somatic. Although perfection is an endless process (both in onto- and philogenesis) at every given moment of the social time it is finished. It is defined by means of a sport achievement; record, by the fact of overcoming the rivals and oneself. Consequently sports are not just a part of physical culture; it is the most important instrument of its self-development. Thus, the place of sports in ontological environment of culture in general and physical is defined first of all its ability to single out the boards of overall realization of abilities possessed by human somatic. Culture transforms an individual´s natural forces, transferring them into a different- social - dimension, giving them a different way of existence implementing human creation and ensure in such a way reproduction of all the society in general. Physical culture develops and preserves human somatic. Sports participate in all these processes, manifesting the highest human´s achievements in the development of his or her somatic, mental and personal qualities. Therefore it is impossible to imagine sports without achievements, without certain objective to strive to records and to victory. The ambition to achieve certain results acknowledged by the participants of the competitions and fixed by the referees is the essential part of the sports. The result crowns all sportsman´s achievements, shows the boarder of his or her personal abilities; and in serious competitions the boarder the mankind achieves due to this athlete. Therefore sports are is a struggle with winds, seconds, rivals and first of all with him- or herself. And yet this part of physical culture is something more than just the area where people try to find out who is faster and stronger. An athlete is a person acting on the bounds of his or her physical and mental abilities and always expresses people´s ambition to try their forces.One more aspect of manifestation of qualitative homogeneity of physical culture as integrity and sports as a part of this integrity should be taken into consideration. Sports help to make somatic and mental abilities possessed by an individual visible and obvious. However we should not forget that a human being is natural and at the same time social. In the cultural-historic process natural organs are getting stronger transferring to a different dimension outside of a human existence. A human being appeared due to fact that natural abilities gained new cultural meaning. But on the other hand the problem of preserving and developing of an individual as natural creature. The solution of this problem is probably becoming the most important task of the whole physical culture and sports in particular.The root of many problems is the complexity and duality of human´s nature, i.e. his or her abilities have different dimensions, different forms of existence including forms of existence "outside" the human´s world. And the most crucial problem is the danger for an individual to "lose" the identity of a natural creature. Naturally enough that educated people both in the West and in Russia are worried that the power of artificial nature is developing much faster than an individual´s strength given by nature. An individual needs physical culture in general and sports in particular not only because he or she is a hart of the culture but also because - a part of the nature. The mankind needs to restore natural forces and possibilities. That is why people use and perfect all the possibilities that help to avoid the danger of "loosing" an individual´s natural features. The specific feature of sports is to demonstrate what an individual´s natural features (even being socially modified) can and must be. An individual involved in all other areas of physical culture (and culture in general) can rely on these data.

Finally, reckoning on ration of sports and physical culture, a conclusion should be made the solution of this problem must be based on ration of a part and whole. Let us assume that these phenomena (physical culture and sports) are of the same quality. Otherwise they can be противопоставлять, their meaning in public mentality will result in reduction, and consequently either one phenomenon (those areas of physical culture which do not relate to the area pf sports) or other (sports itself) will be periodically вытеснять cultural functioning. It will lead to the wrong understanding of the given phenomena, physical culture сведется to P.T. classes; sports will become a part of ideology and commerce. Thus, physical culture is a part of cultural phenomena connected with the development of human flesh into human somatic (having overbiological substratum) and the inclusion of the natural individual in the world of culture. The areas of cultural phenomena are closely connected with human somatic, with their physical state. So physical state should be treated as specific cultural value which needs to be improved and perfected.

Sports to some extend manifest the boarders of an individual´s abilities. And this applicability (essence) realizes sports within the framework of physical culture, instead of outside of them.

The work is submitted to Scientific Conference "The Problems of International Integration of Educational Standards", England (London) - France (Paris), April 20-28, 2009. Came to the Editor´s Office on 10.12.2008.