The developing education system created by a large collective under the leadership of D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov, V.V. Repkin and others differs from other conceptions of developing education with its direct orientation to the problem of psychic, intellectual and personal development.
Proceeding from the problem of providing development, mental development of children in the process of academic activity, first of all, resting upon the views of L.S. Vygotsky about the leading value of the digested knowledge content for the intellectual development, a conclusion cardinally differing from the training practice applied in primary school, was made. In elementary school already the academic activity content should be directed at the digestion of theoretical knowledge as the system of scientific concepts, the acquirement of which develops the foundations of theoretical thinking and consciousness in learners. In the situation, when the content of education is made up of empiric notions and knowledge, there are necessary processes of memory and thinking fully formed before schooling in a child for their digestion. That is why the acquirement of such knowledge doesn´t result in mental energy and abilities growth. In contrast to this, to be digested theoretical notions require new forms of thinking. The a priori knowledge digestion-mindedness of the academic activity in the practice of developing education opens real ways for the development of thinking and personal cognitive interests associated with the last.
The brain work culture level of school children defines all the sides and results of education: the quality of knowledge and skills being formed; the cognitive activity and development of learners´ thinking and creative power; the learning work productivity and the level of academic load depending on the last; the efficiency of using educational opportunities of the academic activity; the readiness of school leavers to life.
As the formation of knowledge, working-out of educational-cognitive devices represents a long-term process: at the first, reproductive, stage school children use an explained device in standard academic conditions under the guidance of the teacher, and at the final, productive, stage they operate it in nonstandard conditions independently and creatively, performing the procedure of its application automatically, in the contracted form, i.e. without dividing this procedure into composite elements.
The work of the teacher on the organization of mastering this or that academic work device within the system of developing education is formed of such elements as: the device mastering original level diagnostics; the teacher´s explanation of importance and necessity of mastering the given device; the instruction about its content and methods of mastering it; the delivery of practical exercises (merged with usual exercises delivered to digest a school subject); the current monitoring of the educational-cognitive skill formation course; its application in various situations; the fixation of the formed skill to work out a habit in school children to apply it independently.
It should be noted that in solving an important problem - to teach school children to learn - a close cooperation between teachers and parents should be exercised. From time to time the teacher should explain the parents which help is required form them while their children prepare their homework; teach them how to run the corresponding work, constantly guide them and correct their actions if it is necessary. But to do it the teacher himself should be equipped with special psychological knowledge about academic activity, its structure, formation, failure after-effect; he should digest the knowledge and skills to form educational-cognitive abilities of learners, methods and devices of this formation.
Thus, the brain work culture represents a complex multilevel model, in the process of education of which a complex approach is needed, i.e. the educational impact should be focused on the personality formation in its entirety.
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The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Modern education. Problems and solutions», Thailand - Cambodia, February 18-28, 2009, came to the editorial office on 10.12.2008.