Problems with which, it is necessary to contend for the teachers of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education)
Interviews with the students from the first on the final fifth course instruction in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) were carried out by me, furthermore, by them it was proposed to express its thoughts in the written form, with what problems they are encountered for the first time the years of instruction, also, in the process of further mastery of specialty. The assembled material, obtained in the course of a study, from the students of the first course attests to the fact that psychologically they experience difficulties in the educational process, all this is manifested in the insufficient perception of lecture material, but practical training does not contribute to the formation of skills and habits, necessary for the future profession, which affects the quality of the obtained formation. The principle of instruction in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) strongly is differed from school instruction, and students pass the continuance of adaptation, which concludes only with the end of the second course. There is even expression "you will break two courses, from the third you will not depart".
Somewhat better proceed the matter in the students, who passed the bases of psychology to school, but also, there are not all is smooth in this group of students. Our student freshman before the entering into VUZ (INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION) became accustomed to associate with the teachers, and here he meets with the professorial-teaching staff, which principally is differed from the pedagogical association of school, and the system of instruction (this of lecture, practical training, work in the libraries, also, with the training literature of another size) in VUZ for them novelty.
It is completely obvious that school educational process has the essential omissions, connected with the teaching of such objects as philosophy and psychology. It is necessary to turn from traditional approaches to instruction in our young people in the school, and to the publishing houses, which work on the innovation technologies of the training process in short periods, to develop the training programs of schoolboys according to the requirements of present day. First of all, this concerns the objects of philosophy and psychology. Resolution of this question will make a real contribution to the adaptation upon transfer from one educational system into completely different plane of instruction. I.e. the entering of schoolboy into VUZ (INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION) is accompanied by no adaptation this is the simply following stage of their development.
By the following problem, with which meets the pedagogical association of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), this is the selection of profession, which for the majority of young people is serious problem. This the serious question as is correct to select specialty, since the quality of formation directly depends on the selection of profession. After conducting social psychological interrogation, after gathering in students (in the written form) their vision of the problem of the psychological selection of profession, the following picture appears: if student masters that profession, to which he does not have ability, then the cancelled career and/or the life of this student becomes sum. In this case the society acquires the unskilled worker and, simultaneously, loses the specialist of another profession, where the abilities of this student could appear. It is very important to note that the not always young person independently approaches the selection of profession, more frequent for it is decision of parents or other adult people. Resolution of this question also lies in the plane of the acquisition of qualitative formation in the school establishments and directly it depends on the teaching of philosophy and psychology.
Concerning other problems, which the students in the walls of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) encounter - this is the inability to master objects in that river bed, as this present day and specialty requires. Knowledge are frequently interrupted, not ordered, is absent the competently built system of knowledge and in the majority of the cases this occurs not through the fault of student himself, not because of the poor teaching of this object by teacher, but because of the unpreparedness of student for the instruction in the psychological plan. Specifically, psychology of thinking can give to student the system of knowledge about how master object, in what direction move, on what to be oriented, to find correct approaches to the study of objects.
In our VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) insufficient attention is paid to this aspect of training students. I transfer the enumeration of psychological disciplines, which teach in our VUZ (Institute of Higher Education): general psychology and the history of psychology; psychology dependent on age; social psychology; special psychology; pedagogical psychology; the procedure of the teaching of psychology; psycho-geneticist; psychophysiology, all these objects give knowledge, but they do not teach, as it is correct to obtain knowledge. This omission is noted already from the school bench precisely here the absence of such objects as psychology of knowledge and thinking it affects what young people do not understand the skill of the perception of the integrity of instruction. This picture is observed also in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education).
On the basis obtained given from the students it is possible to make the following conclusion: is necessary introduction into the training process of schools and VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) not simply of psychology, but the inherent components, such as psychology of knowledge and thinking, when within the framework indicated disciplines will be given the principles of correct approach to the mastery of objects.
One additional problem, which indicate the students of the first courses (it it must be solved by the psychologists of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) and by the system of training future teachers), has straight relation to the culture of school teachers. Being trained in the school, young people frequently encounter with the fact that instructors they do not know how to erect correct interrelations with the students, they do not know how adequately to react to their behavior, even if it causes irritation. Students note that in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) them it does not be necessary to be encountered with this phenomenon, although the specific complexities in the interrelations of students with the instructors of higher educational institutions, certainly, exist, they bear another nature. It is understandable that the majority of students, that break discipline, subsequently do not enter higher educational institutions. However, formation system VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) must prepare not only the qualified professionals in the specialty, but also study by training personnel for the school, by educational process, which, in turn, will be reflected in the adequacy of the behavior of school teachers in any most complex situations.
With existence of high-quality educational system in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), the graduates of these institutions will know how to competently build interrelations with the children they to this will be trained. Are frequent the cases, when teachers exceed the scope of ethical standards, this behavior is unworthy of their formation and status, which indicate omission in the system of the formation of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education). It is necessary to develop psychological trainings corresponding to the world standards, with the aid of which the instructors of psychology will train students for the skill correctly to be oriented in one or other situation or another of pedagogical interaction and to seize the habits of the establishment of contact with the audience.
General with the students, after learning their opinion relative to the solution of this problem, it appeared, that not only the unpreparedness of the graduates of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) is the sole reason, which lies at the basis of conflicts. The opinion of the students, with whom, was conducted the interview following: the teachers of schools themselves, without desiring this, provoke conflicts and they are obvious. First, when teaching is conducted monotonically the perception of material passes not at the proper level, moreover both for the students of those not desiring to learn and for the children, by which the formation is not unimportant, this situation leads to the stress of all participants in the process of instruction. Are in the second place, frequent the cases of the incorrect selection of the educational program (especially this it concerns "moved" programs, which require of the children, independent of their abilities, from the first years of instruction to independently master objects), which leads to the incomprehension of object and the development of conflict situation.
The students, when they shared their impressions about the school instruction, they noted that by it were encountered the teachers, object of which by them did not please itself, they considered themselves incapable of its mastery, but teacher knew how to interest them, lessons were passed during one respiration, it implicated them into very process of instruction. Experience of pedagogical activity as the teachers of chemistry and biology in the school and the assistant of the department of psychology in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) of gave me to conducting of mini- conferences with the interested students. Taking into account the opinions of students, after discussing with them what style of teaching by them it is most acceptable for the best perception of material, I made the following conclusion that it is necessary to erect lecture and practical training on the specific principles:
- to implicate them into the process of instruction, after creating the atmosphere of discussions, debates, disputes, to grant to them the right to voice its judgments (this must practice from the school bench);
- within the framework educational programs to attain from the students of the fulfillment of course and abstract works taking into account of their own world view and attitude, allowing the conclusions, which can and not coincide with the conventional opinion. This will allow them to work creatively, to feel itself by capable of the uncommon solutions, it will free from the fetters of standards.
- to organize the mini seminars, where on the agenda must stand some problematic question and propose to students to express itself, as they independently can solve it;
- contact with the students must not be accompanied by sympathies and antipathies, no one must feel itself by that pinched or express the superiority, which often the teachers provoke by their relation;
- to reveal the most gifted young people not in the closed regime, when it cannot be to very participants in the competitions estimated, as their work it appeared in the comparison with those, who occupied the first places, and the work of conquerors were evaluated on what criteria. In this connection the principle of the attraction of students themselves to estimation of works and resolution of a question was used by me, who was worthy to participate in the competitions. This in the open form was conducted all students participated in the nomination for election. By this the principle of bias was removed.
The basic purpose of our profession - to prepare the qualified personals, capable at the proper level of managing our profession, only in this case we can say that the quality of formation in our country reached world standards. It is necessary to erect the system of the psychological thinking of students to the skill to obtain knowledge, to master profession, and systematic recommendations and benefits must be developed for this, standards for evaluating the professional fitness of student are created.
Since the educational system must serve for the good both the society and state and user himself - student, who on the base of the knowledge of those obtained in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), must obtain worthy working place and become professional, as to the instructor of VUZ I made the attempt to systematize the basic problems of our formation by the eyes of students, was for which developed the enumeration of questions.
To students it was proposed in the written form to reflect the complexities, which they experience with the instruction in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) and as far as possible to transfer these difficulties:
It is revealed:
- The continuance of adaptation;
- Selection of profession;
- Skill to obtain knowledge on the objects;
- Conflicts with the teaching staff.
To write in the free form about the ways, which (in their opinion), will solve these problems:
It is revealed:
- To change educational system in the school. To introduce into the educational process as required object psychology, moreover those regions of this object, which give the skill to learn and to accept objects integrally, but not interrupted knowledge, they help to correctly select profession;
- Two last year of instruction the teaching in the school must be the same as the higher educational.
What teacher they would want to see:
It is revealed:
- Actively participating in the creative and educational process of students;
- Correctly evaluating knowledge and the ability of students, impartial;
- Confident in itself, respecting itself and its time, that knows how to preserve discipline and adapting to any unforeseen situation;
- Respecting student and seeing in him creative beginning, capable of participating in the scientific activity.
What method of instruction they consider acceptable and, in what form they see the ideal teaching:
It is revealed:
- In the form discussions, the assignment of visual and video of material, participation of students in the process of instruction;
- It is possible to consider as the ideal teaching, when the mutual understanding of student with the instructor appears and teacher is capable to establish contact with the audience.
Why they selected this VUZ (INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION):
It is revealed:
- In order to obtain diploma about higher education;
- In order to be arranged in the appropriate specialty;
- They entered only into this VUZ (Institute of Higher Education);
- To obtain knowledge and to make a career in the specialty;
What they want to obtain from the instruction in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education):
It is revealed:
- Knowledge and habits for the adoption to the high-paid job;
- Place is working.
What qualities of teacher prevent you from mastering material:
It is revealed:
- Inability to teach material, instruction in the form of monologue;
- Indifference to the creative abilities of students, the unwillingness to spend its personal time;
- When the knowledge of teacher is the crenulations´ material, also, with the answer by students by their words of the essence of a question, but not by precise phrases from the textbooks, instructor begins to evaluate knowledge as not corresponding to understanding object.
Which contributes give the correct understanding of the object:
It is revealed:
- Accessibility and simplicity of material;
- Visual material;
- Invitation to the occupation of person, who reached heights in this region and the consideration of material with it;
- Professionalism of teacher and his erudition.
The results, obtained from the students, testify that it is necessary to orient its pedagogical activity toward the correspondence to their wishes, since the estimation of our activity is placed on the basis what professionals we will prepare to society and to state.
For the familiarizing of students with the creation the following methods were used by me:
- It was proposed in the abstract form, without resorting to to the study of what or sources, to express its ideas to the system of the teaching in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education);
- The consideration was conducted according to the results of the executed works, who more completely and more precisely reflected the existing problems, and it let to students themselves participate in the selection of conqueror;
- To the students, who most fully illuminated problem, it was proposed already to work with the literature of analogous nature and to conduct comparative characteristic, as one and the same problem they attempt to decide in the different sources;
- The system of the encouragement, when with the successful work of student and satisfaction of all conditions the following privileges, were allowed to it was used:
A) was placed test or examination with automaton;
B) was allowed free visit on the object, when the student gave the sufficiency of time out of the occupations to the object and he reported by the executed work;
C) the possibility to obtain additional marks to the examination c) was allowed.
The results obtained during the work with the students testify that it is necessary to change much in the system of the teaching in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), should be reexamined the traditional style of the instruction of students. Today we precisely force students to acquire the knowledge, which must prove useful to them in the profession. The training literature and the systematic recommendations, developed for VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), do not provide for independent thinking and familiarizing of students with the training process, they do not teach the skill to reflect its thoughts in the written form. The system of the abstracts, course, control, the examinations, independent, etc, implies the commonplace skill to work with the strange material. The carried out experiment revealed, that the majority of students cannot express their thoughts and ideas on the paper, by it simpler compose summary of the existing literature, than by itself present their idea. Answers to the questions presented by me, in essence, appeared by brief test account; however, approach itself to its own comprehension of educational process was pleased with all without the exception. It was expressed, that this is the first experiment and thus far they were not ready to this work, but already change itself in the approach to the instruction generated interest and students actively began to participate in this experiment.
Negative was the fact that young people, which entered into VUZ, were not ready to express their thoughts in the written form, to make a report, to participate in the debates, to have their point of view and to defend it. These are serious gaps in the system of the school preparation, when is not conducted work on training of the formed personality, which knows how to think independently. Another fairly complicated problem illuminated by students, was (I cite students themselves) "the session, when it is necessary to in time return tests, debts and, certainly, examinations". I.e., if the visit of occupations in the school was standard, then in the institute, in spite of entire seriousness of instruction, the visit of occupations, this is the prerogative of students themselves, and they because of the essential difference of instruction in the school and the institute were not fitted out and the passages of occupations affect the quality of the obtained formation. It is known that the visit by the students of objects directly depends on that as far as by them interestingly at the lectures and in the occupations.
Students illuminated another circle of the problems of those connected with the object psychology, they practically into one voice assert that psychology interesting object, gives some ideas about the personality, the interrelations, but it does not help with the knowledge of other objects, is not created the integral picture of peace, it does not help with the personal orientation in the society, etc, but as all other objects is the supplier of the specific knowledge and not more. In connection with this I will express my opinion that this problem appears not from the non professionalism of the teachers of psychologists, but from the imperfection of training and systematic literature, which is developed for other purposes. It is today simply necessary to reorient purposes and tasks, which in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) must solve psychology and prepare the training system, capable of solving the basic problems of qualitative formation.
In the carried out scientific research experiment is made the attempt to reorient the traditional approach of educational process (commonplace obtaining of knowledge) to the work with the students, which makes it possible to actively assign them on the independent thinking, to the development of mental abilities, to the skill to analyze, conclusions, to learn to present its thoughts in the written form (is without which impossible science), to master the procedures of the instruction of objects, to find approaches and to develop the system of teaching, which makes it possible to better master material and to make psychology the object, which plays the key role in the development of innovation educational system. Was despite the fact that revealed a sufficiently large quantity of gaps in the educational programs (both school and higher educational of instructions), revealed, that involvement of students in the educational and scientific research processes, gives the perceptible results, which are expressed in the increased interest of students to the object, the percentage of truancies is reduced, independent work is stimulated, the level of the obtained knowledge rises, since for the possibility of participation in the debates, the expression of its own point of view, in students appears the personal motivation to the intensified study of object and appears the real possibility to manifest its knowledge before each other. The approach to the students, which deprives the possibility to preconceived relate to the knowledge, the personal qualities of students was in this work proposed, since the solution about that, whose work was executed most qualitatively, was received by collectively, students themselves, when they did not know, they discussed whose work. Conquerors in such competitions had extra incentive for further improvement, since they felt, that they were selected on the objective criteria. In the completion one ought to note that was in this work made the first step and was created reserve for further improvement of the educational system of practical and applied nature, which in the future must become innovation and competitive.