Nowadays, during the remediation of the oily ground the selection of utilizable inexpensive natural carriers for alkane- trophic microorganisms on basis of the waste is very perspective. It provides the semi-functionality of the biological preparation-oily destructors, that has not only the ability to decompose petroleum pollution, but also to raise the biological ground activity, to provide positive balance humus, to active the microflora of the ground, to influence on rhizosphere of the plants favorably, to provide the adaptation of oily oxidizing microflora and to reduce the stress for microorganisms in a polluted environment.
The main purpose of the work was the substantiation of the ways of wastes´ use of the fat-and-oil industry - sunflowers´ seedcoats and its modification - as carriers for monocultures Rhodococcus erythropolis AC-1339 D and Fusarium sp. №56 and their associations during remediation of the oily ground.
There was carried out the modification of sunflower pod for increasing the adhesion properties, preliminary including the extraction of wax-like lipids from it by the light petroleum degreasing. After the solvent removal from the pod, exposured it by concentrated hydrochloric acid (within several hours), washed out by distilled water up to рН=7, then processed by 33% solution of alkali NaOH and again washed by distilled water before neutral reaction, finished the process by drying under 130ºС up to humidity 12-14 %. The generated modified carrier was used in the further researches. For just listed carriers was checked the absorption degree of microorganisms - oily destructors by the known procedure.
As a result of researches is revealed, that the application of modified sunflower pod with immobilized association of microorganisms Rhodococcus erythropolis AC-1339 D and Fusarium sp. №56 in the ratio 1:1 gives the significant increase of a biological degradation degree of petroleum (up to 10-20 %). The large specific surface of the carrier provides not complicated diffusion of substratum to cells of microorganisms- oily destructors and removal metabolite from particles. After the ground cleaning from petroleum the sunflower pod is like a siderate, improves the structural properties of ground, intensifies its moisture and air capacity and of course interchange of energy.
The work was submitted to international scientific conference Priorities for the development of science, technology and engineering», Greece, March 23-30, 2007, came to the editorial office on 12.03.2008.