The problem of the formation of consumer culture of the younger generation is of particular relevance in the context of the global spread of mass culture, the key markers of which are entertainment, hedonism and consumerization of leisure.
According to the fair statement of T.A.Stepchenko, the formation of a reasonable combination of material and spiritual among young people as consumers should become a purposeful and systematic pedagogical process [1, p.4]. Nevertheless, the analysis of special literature revealed insufficient coverage of the problem of the formation of consumer culture of high school students in pedagogical discourse.
In Russian consumer studies (I.V. Vinogradova, P.V. Kryuchkova, Yu. Komissarova; E.N.Kuznetsova, Ya.E. Partiy, A.N. Raspopin, P.V. Romanets, T.A. Styazhkina, V.V. Smirnova, G.N. Tsykoza, F.R. Shakhurina, etc.), much attention is paid to the content component of consumer education.
Over the past few decades, separate dissertation studies have appeared on the education of consumer culture among schoolchildren (O.N. Esina, T.A. Stepchenko, etc.), among which L.I. Rostovtseva, V.D. Simonenko, T.A. Stepchenko have given priority to the formation of consumer culture . Russian authors generally focus on the process of teaching the basics of consumer culture to younger generations on the basis of secondary schools. The solution of the identified problems on the formation of the consumer culture of the personality of young people occurs mainly in schools within the framework of general education subjects.
The above gives special relevance to the pedagogical problem of the formation of consumer culture in theoretical and practical senses, stimulates the search for effective forms and methods of development of this culture both at the state level and at the level of private initiatives, including in the socio-cultural sphere.
Cultural policy, determining the nature of the activities of some cultural institutions, influences consumer behavior and consumer culture as a whole, is aimed at differentiating cultural offerings, which allows different social groups to “find something for themselves” .
The only scientific study devoted to the problem of the formation of consumer culture of the amateur population in the conditions of club associations in Russia was conducted by M.R. Grif. Nevertheless, until now, the pedagogical aspects of the formation of the consumer culture of the personality of high school students in the environment of socio-cultural institutions have not received proper coverage in the domestic theory.
Cultural and leisure institutions have great potential in the formation and development of a competent and conscious attitude to material and spiritual values, education of moral and moral aspects of consumer behavior of the individual. They not only contribute to the establishment of social contacts and socialization as such, but also comprehensively develop the individual, create, distribute, popularize cultural goods, contribute to the creation of a standard of consumer behavior and consumer culture in a particular branch of the socio-cultural sphere and the economy of the country as a whole.
The object of special interest of cultural institutions is the senior school age corresponding to the age stage of early youth from 15 to 18 years. The leading activity at this age is educational and professional, during which the transition to independent and responsible adult activity is formed. An important aspect of the growing up of a young man or girl is social self-determination, based on the general level of social claims, including the choice of the sphere of professional activity and the formation of a life perspective. The worldview is formed on the basis of the existing system of knowledge and outlook, and is also expressed in the value orientations and beliefs of the individual. Moral consciousness or moral autonomy is the presence of a system of certain rules and principles that guide young people in making any decisions or in carrying out various types of activities . It is important for specialists of cultural and leisure activities to use activity.
Adolescent consumption is controversial. On the one hand, it is the introduction to social benefits, the development of useful skills and the improvement of daily applied competencies. On the other hand, there is a danger that the younger generation will measure its success, social status exclusively in the categories of material consumption . According to M. R. Grif, consumer education at the school level is an important process aimed at increasing the responsibility of an individual for his own life, future family, obligations to society and the environment.
Among the main problems of consumption, scientists attribute the lack of real life experience in modern schoolchildren related to personal finance management, methodological developments and the lack of motivation and the necessary involvement of schoolchildren.
Based on the above, an empirical study of the consumer culture of high school students of the Omutinsky municipal district of the Tyumen region was conducted, the results of which can contribute to the development of conditions for the effective formation of the consumer culture of young people in cultural and leisure institutions.
The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the formation of consumer culture of high school students (on the example of the Omutinsky municipal district of the Tyumen region). As a result of the study, recommendations were formulated for the creation of organizational and pedagogical conditions for the formation of consumer culture of young people in cultural and leisure institutions.
Material and methods of research
Research tools: a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Methods of collecting primary sociological information: online survey. Methods of information processing: analysis, synthesis, ranking, generalization. According to the criteria selected on the basis of the works of A.V. Mitoyan, the levels of formation of the consumer culture of high school students were determined: high, medium and low [6, p.6].
The online study involved 50 people (schoolchildren of grades 8-11), of which 58% were girls, 42% were boys. The study covered the age range of participants from 14 to 18 years, most of the respondents (28%) were 17 years old at the time of the study.
Results of the research and discussions
74% of the surveyed schoolchildren attempted to formulate a definition of the concept of “rational consumption”; 12% answered affirmatively to the question about knowledge of the definition of rational consumption, but could not formulate it, 10% answered negatively to the question posed and could not formulate a definition. Among the attempts to formulate a definition of the concept of “rational consumption”, the following formulations prevail:
- advance planning of your expenses and rational spending of money (“spending things wisely”, “rational spending of your money”, “when you decide in advance what to buy”);
- reasonable use of resources (“using something out of necessity, not just like that”, “this is when resources are allocated correctly”);
- consumption of only necessary things and products (“when you don’t spend money on unnecessary things”, “spending money is useful, on business”, “buying necessary things for life with consideration for the future”, “checking yourself whether you need a thing”, “you don’t buy something you won’t use”.
The majority of the surveyed schoolchildren (78%) like to buy their own products and things. 96% of respondents consider it important to plan their purchases based on the amount of available funds. Respondents explained the choice of this answer by the following reasons:
- shopping planning allows you to minimize unexpected expenses;
- shopping planning helps to set the amount that is not worth spending more than;
- shopping planning allows you to rationally distribute the budget according to the degree of importance of purchases.
The absolute majority (100%) of the survey participants believe that it is necessary to know the methods of determining the quality of purchased products. Of these, 74% of the survey participants know and apply these methods in practice, the remaining 26% admit that they do not know, but express a desire to learn them.
47 out of 50 survey participants (94%) believe that it is worth buying only the necessary things. 90% of respondents purchase only the things they need. 70% of the survey participants strive for the development of their inner world, 26% find it difficult to answer and only 6% admit that they do not have such an aspiration.
Among the types of cultural consumption, reading is in the greatest demand (56%); cinema visits are in second place (44% of respondents often visit them). Among the types of cultural consumption that have an average demand, listening to classical music is the leader (48% of the survey participants rarely listen to it). At the same level in this category is visiting theaters and libraries (46% of respondents rarely do this). 32% of respondents rarely read books.
Concert halls and philharmonic halls are in the lowest demand among high school students (62% never visit them); 56% do not purchase books and albums on art, 42% do not visit libraries and reading rooms, 42% do not visit theaters, 34% never visit museums and exhibitions, and only 6% never go in the cinema. Among the genres of art and artistic creativity, the majority of high school students prefer cinema (66%). Minority of respondents (14%) decorative and applied art was called such a genre.
Among the types of culture, 68% of respondents named mass culture as the closest type of culture to them; 14% indicated that each of the presented options is equally close to them. 12% of the survey participants believe that no type of culture is close to them, and only 6% of the participants chose an elite culture as the closest option to their ideals.
66% of respondents prefer to spend their free time listening to music, 16% of respondents are engaged in the studios of the Omutinsky district House of Culture, 32% are engaged in school circles and sections. 15 out of 50 respondents (30%) spend their free time doing sports, watching movies 24 out of 50 respondents (48%). 27 out of 50 participants (54%) spend their free time flipping through their social networks.
36 out of 50 respondents (72%) are not attracted by the opportunity to purchase something when visiting cultural institutions. 15 out of 50 respondents (30%) do not attend the events of the Omutinsky district House of Culture. 26 out of 50 respondents (52%) attend events of the House of Culture related to holidays. 16% of the study participants attend informational and educational events – quizzes, quizzes, logistics games, etc. Entertainment events – quests, entertainment programs, dance programs, etc. events are attended by 26% of respondents.
Among the events that the survey participants would like to attend in the Omutinsky District House of Culture, the leading place is occupied by master classes and clubs – 26% of respondents would like to attend them. They explain their choice by the desire to gain new knowledge, find themselves in a new occupation and try something new.
Concert programs are in second place – 22% of the study participants want to visit them, most of whom want to attend a concert of modern popular performers. 8% of participants wish to attend the quest, and 8% of respondents are not interested in attending any events.
26% of respondents believe that cultural institutions cannot contribute to the formation of rational consumption skills, 18% find it difficult to answer. The participants argue their opinion by the fact that cultural institutions focus only on holding entertainment events. The majority of the study participants (56%) believe that cultural institutions are able to form rational consumption skills. Among the ways of forming rational consumption, the survey participants call:
- carrying out information and educational events dedicated to this problem;
- organization of forums or workshops;
- promotion of the ideas of rational behavior. 86% of the study participants believe that expanding horizons, education and erudition over time can lead to an increase in material well-being; 14% find it difficult to answer.
The results of the study revealed the average level of formation of consumer culture in a modern high school student. Respondents do not have full knowledge of a rational culture of consumption, some of them find it difficult to choose methods for determining the quality of products, do not apply them in practice or do not have sufficient knowledge about these methods. However, the majority of respondents are aware of the importance of socially and economically literate consumption.
High school students are aimed at obtaining useful knowledge and skills of cultural consumption in the conditions of cultural institutions that can be applied in practice. Most of them strive for the development of their inner world and feel the need for self-realization, which corresponds to the characteristic features of this age. The need for emotionally and culturally rich pastime, interpersonal communication is clearly manifested.
Based on the above, it is possible to formulate recommendations for the development of organizational and pedagogical conditions for the formation of consumer culture of high school students in the conditions of cultural and leisure institutions.
The formation of consumer culture occurs both under the influence of objective reality and educational activities. The specifics of the formation of consumer culture lies in the uniqueness of the impact of the organizational and pedagogical conditions of cultural institutions that allow young people to acquire skills and abilities in the field of conscious consumption, consumer behavior strategies, etc. It follows that organizational and pedagogical conditions are necessary that would have both direct and indirect influence on the formation of the consumer culture of a young man’s personality, and namely:
- identification of factors contributing to the optimization of the pedagogical process for the formation of a consumer culture of the individual;
- complex use of methods of socio-cultural pedagogical influence; – the use of practice-oriented socio-cultural and pedagogical technologies of educational activities;
- development and implementation of a pedagogical program aimed at the formation of a consumer culture of the individual;
- cooperation of the teacher-organizer and the subject of the formation of the consumer culture of the individual.
Effective activity on the formation of consumer culture of adolescents and youth in cultural and leisure institutions, in our opinion, is possible under the following conditions:
1. On the basis of a cultural and leisure institution, create a consumer club “School of the young consumer”, aimed at forming a consumer culture of a high school student’s personality. Traditionally, the club is considered as “a public organization that voluntarily unites groups of people for communication related to political, scientific, artistic, sports and other interests, as well as for joint recreation and entertainment” . Its advantage consists in a wide choice of application of various socio-cultural technologies that contribute to the involvement of schoolchildren in this process.
2. The process of forming the consumer culture of high school students in a club-type institution is based on the principles that determine its orientation and content:
- the principle of humanistic orientation presupposes the consistent attitude of the teacher to the pupil as a responsible and independent subject of his own development; the strategy of his interaction with the individual and the team in the educational process on the basis of subject-subject relations. This principle significantly affects the consumer socialization of a high school student and ensures: successful development of positive norms and values; effective self-realization of a pupil as a subject of socialization; balance between adaptation in society and isolation in it; the development of reflection and self-regulation; the formation of self-esteem; responsibility, etc.;
- the principle of conformity to nature suggests that education should be based on a scientific understanding of the relationship between natural and social processes. For this purpose, certain ethical attitudes towards consumer behavior are cultivated;
- the principle of cultural conformity in the modern interpretation suggests that education is aimed at introducing a person to various layers of culture, his own ethnicity and the world as a whole, developing various ways of adapting to changes that occur in himself and in the world around him, and the ability to find ways to minimize the negative consequences of innovation;
- the principle of variability of education assumes the variability of the content and technologies of education and upbringing (education) depending on age, individual abilities, is determined by the diversity and mobility of the interests of the individual and society. To implement this principle, various types and types of educational organizations are being created, whose goals and programs of activity, based on universal values, take into account ethnic characteristics and local conditions;
- the principle of the integrity of the educational process is a system of initial, basic requirements for education and training that determines the content, forms and methods of the pedagogical process and ensures its success;
- the principle of continuity of education means the construction of humanistic socio-pedagogical systems in the following coordinates: orientation to a person, his individual characteristics and needs; accessibility, democracy and openness of the system for everyone, regardless of gender, nationality, race, physical condition and age; flexibility of the system, its prompt response to demand and peculiarities of needs, the pace of and styles of education and upbringing of various social and age categories of the population; integration of formal and informal types of education, creation of an integral “educational field (space)” in society as a fundamental factor of socialization of the individual [8, pp. 39-45].
3. Based on the above-mentioned principles, to develop an educational program for the formation of consumer culture, including the organization of a step-by-step process of “promotion” of a member of the consumer club from the cognitive (low) level to the cognitive-activity (medium) level, and then to the activity-creative (higher) level of the formation of consumer culture.
4. To include in the educational program of the consumer club information and educational forms of socio-cultural activities and interactive educational technologies (lectures, talks, reports, webinars, conferences, business games, trainings, etc.), which contributes to the involvement of club members in socio-cultural activities, various types of amateur creativity, in an artistic and imaginative way emotional impact by transforming information related to various aspects of the consumption process.
The main task of forming a consumer culture among the younger generation is to make clubs constantly functioning. Consumer clubs can become such if they work on the basis of voluntary initiative and the use of modern forms of familiarization with the ideas of a high culture of consumption, namely:
1) organizing exhibitions of mini-markets with the sale of posters, paintings, crafts made by members of clubs during classes;
2) conducting consumer festivals, forums;
3) conducting excursions to production units, local markets, service sector institutions, etc.;
4) inviting experts in various fields to disseminate information related to consumer welfare and general awareness of consumer goods and services.
Thus, the peculiarities of the formation of the consumer culture of a high school student in cultural and leisure institutions are based on organizational and pedagogical conditions that represent a set of purposefully constructed possibilities of content, forms, methods of an integral pedagogical process implemented in the theory and practice of socio-cultural activities.