Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

UPBRINGING AND EDUCATION: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT

Belova T.A. 1 Britskaya A.L. 1
1 FGBOU VO OSMU MinzdravaRossii
1835 KB
The article deals with the role of upbringing in the education system. It is considered what kind of educational function the family, a children’s preschool institution, a school, an institution of higher education perform in the framework of the formation of a person as a person. The authors note that the educational process is, first of all, the interaction of two personalities – a teacher and a student. The main function of the teacher is the transfer of new knowledge, skills and skills to the student, as well as the education of the future citizen, a specialist in the training. Also, the authors actively use examples from the history of the Russian state, namely, how they brought up future rulers, from the Middle ages to the Romanovs. In conclusion, the authors note that the upbringing of a person is a process that goes on “a red thread” throughout his life. Education of a person, a citizen, a specialist is of great importance in the education system, beginning with the birth of a young child, and then in the framework of preschool, school and vocational education. Parents and teachers help to grow a citizen, patriot, professional. Therefore, the educational process is an important component of the education system in Russia both at the present stage and in its historical past.
upbringing
pre-school education
vocational education
child
person
school education
personality
1. Bilfinger G.B. Location of the teachings of his Imperial Majesty Peter the Second Emperor and autocrat All-Russia, and so on, and so on, and so on. On the establishment of His Excellency the state official-chancellor of the State, is the effective adviser of Baron von Osterman, his Imperial Majesty, the Obergofmeister. – St. Petersburg, B.G. – P. 7-11.
2. Britskaya A.L. On some problems of increasing the effectiveness of education // Omsk Scientific Bulletin. Appendix to the release of the thirtieth. – 2005. – № 3 (30) – P. 64-65.
3. Belova T.A., Britskaya A.L., Nepsha I.V., Sivirina O.A., Shvin M.V. The patriotic education of modern youth in a medical university: the example of Omsk State Medical University. // Modern science-based technologies. – 2016. – № 4 (part 2). – P. 309-313.
4. Belova T.A. The use of the technology of “small groups” at the seminars on the discipline “History of the Fatherland” in a medical college. // Modern science-based technologies. – № 9 – 2015. – P. 96-98.
5. Belova T.A., Britskaya A.L., Emelyanova N.M., Nepsha I.V., Sivirina O.A. The technology of problem training as a tool for the development of independent work of students. // Modern problems of science and education. – 2015. – № 2 (part 2).

Born on Earth, a person already carries a certain set of spiritual and psychic qualities, which should be developed further during life and revealed in the process of education.

The time of childhood is a period of the formation and development of the person’s physical and spiritual-moral positions, the time of acquiring all kinds of knowledge, fixing skills and habits. First of all, a person comes into contact with a new world in the family. Folk wisdom says: “The apple is not far from the apple tree”. The living conditions for each child are different. In one family – this is a long-awaited favorite child, and the other child is not needed by anyone in the family. And excessive care, and guardianship, the transformation of a new member of the family into an idol for worship, and the lack of basic care, caress, attention and everything necessary for the development and growth of a child can have an equally lamentable result. The proverb says: “You cann’t love a child, you can spoil him”. Already in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov in Russia, the order of education of the royal heirs is established. Up to five years the child grew and was brought up mainly in the female environment: the queen herself, mothers, nurse, etc. The main task of education was to prioritize the environment by loving and caressing the child. Then the child passed into the sphere of cares of the king-father, gradually joining the mastery of scientific knowledge.

Thus, the atmosphere of the family hearth is what the child faces from the first days of his life. The atmosphere of the spiritual state of the family lays the foundation for the child’s future life.

The next stage in the life of a child in the modern world is the life of the child in a preschool institution. This is a very difficult stage for the baby. The child was always in the family, with his mother and now he finds himself in a completely different situation, with completely unknown people – teachers. Parents in this situation need to prepare the child for new life conditions, to expand his circle of communication. It is very important that the attitude of kindergarten workers to children is warm, but this is rarely found. Therefore, a child very often goes to kindergarten by duty, and not at will. Unfortunately, the work of many educational institutions is largely determined by the tradition, according to which the education system requires the education of an obedient performer, convenient for society. And such “upbringing” begins already with nurseries and kindergartens. The child is fed “by the hour”, and not by necessity, accustomed to a rigid regime of the day, etc. As a result, the child experiences a state of “abandonment and non-involvement”, but for educators and parents, he becomes quite comfortable “adaptive” child. This situation can then be repeated in schools.

Thus, the process of education and upbringing is a two-way process that includes the pedagogical activity of educators (that is, the performance of the function of organizing, managing and stimulating the child’s development) and the child’s response to the effects of adults. Especially important is the interaction with adults of those children who are prone to mental disorders. Psychologists recognize the fact that even in the absence of primary defects caused by the disease, the child’s mental development can be disrupted by the adverse impact of the microsocial environment. So an unfavorable family atmosphere, lack of necessary communication between an adult and a child is dangerous at an early age, as it deprives the child of the necessary impressions, which forms mental deprivation and adversely affects the development of mental functions. The quality of pedagogical influence at early stages depends on the probability of compensation for any defects or, conversely, their aggravation. Therefore, the role of educators is often decisive in the future fate of such children.

The school period in the life of the child is especially important. It is in these years that a system of perception of the world is being developed, the child learns an independent approach to life. By this time the child understands that there are other people on the path of life, except for parents. The school makes new demands on the child, which often becomes an additional factor in the development of deviations in personal development. There is even a special term in the psychology of “didactogeny”, which means a violation of the pupil’s mental activity with the incorrect educational influence of the teacher.

A striking example of the right relationship between teacher and disciple is St. John of Kronstadt, who taught at the gymnasium. He showed true love towards his students: he did not put “twos”, he never asked for lessons on the house, asked those who wished to answer, thanked him for the good answers. It often happened that Father John interceded for a disciple whom they wanted to expel from the gymnasium. He was entrusted with the pupil and actively studied with him. And the positive result did not make me wait long. But this does not mean that he was “kindhearted” towards the students, he saw who needed help and words of support, and who deserved the punishment. And the students felt the sincerity of their teacher and looked forward to the lessons. John of Kronstadt was firmly convinced that many of the problems of an adult were laid down in childhood.

Also responsibly approached the educational process during the training of future heirs of the throne. For example, for the young Emperor Peter II, Andrei Ivanovich Osterman compiled a schedule of studies where the science was based on education that could help the emperor in governing the state: “Namely:

1. A new or civil history ...

2. The general policy ...

3. military art.

... the other parts of knowledge and science can ... then suggest that ... they need to be amused. Prior to that,

1. Ancient history.

2. Arithmetic, Geometry and Trigonometry.

3. Cosmography.

4 Knowledge is natural.

5. General rules of civil architecture.

... especially to watch it, so that the diligence of His Majesty does not bother, and for the sake of no teaching for more than an hour to continue, but always pleasing to the fun after the time allowed for the teaching” [1].

Responsibly approached the educational process during the training of future heirs of the throne. For example, the heir to the throne was educated to behave properly in the society both among compatriots and foreigners (for example, the monarch took the heir to official receptions), maintained a good physical form, actively included physical labor in the order of the heir’s day (Paul I loved to grind the details on the machine, and his son, the future Emperor Alexander I, was digging up beds, mowing, plowing, chopping wood). In the future heir to the throne teachers brought up feelings of compassion, civic duty. At the same time, the education and upbringing of the heir did not go in a closed space, actively attracted peers in order for the future sovereign to grow up in the right environment (Metropolitan Makarii formed around the future Tsar Ivan the Terrible circle of persons who later formed the basis of the government of Tsar Ivan – the “Izbrannaya rada”).

After graduation, when a person goes into an independent life, his attitude towards others is formed taking into account the acquired life experience, including through education throughout his life from the moment of birth. So if a child in a family or school establishment has a sense of insecurity, a state of anxiety, then this could become a trigger for aggression as a natural way of protection. Hence the negative attitude towards the teaching both among schoolchildren and students, even among those who know the disciplines themselves well. And if a person studies, feeling disgust for knowledge, then we psychologically oppress him. As a result, the result of coercion is either the rejection of imposed acts, or those who impose these actions [2].

An important contribution to the process of the further development of a person is played by his professional path, which originates in a higher educational institution. The teacher of any discipline performs not only educational, but also educational functions. Education of the future specialist has several features in comparison with the education of the schoolboy. So for a student, as a person of a certain age, the greatest plasticity in the formation of complex psychomotor skills is characteristic, the achievement of “peak” results in solving verbal and logical problems, etc. But, it is quite obvious that all these achievements are based on the previous processes of biological, psychological, and social development.

Psychologists note that the student’s age is a period not only of character stabilization, but also of the greatest development of moral and aesthetic feelings, of mastering the full range of social roles of an adult (civil, professional, labor). An important feature of moral development at this age is the intensification of conscious motives for behavior. Strengthened and those qualities that were lacking in the school period: purposefulness, initiative, determination, independence, self-control and others. Young people begin to show interest in moral problems, such as the purpose of life, duty, love, etc. However, during this period, there may be a differentiation between opportunities and their actual implementation. Researchers in the field of age psychology note that the student’s ability to consciously regulate his behavior is not yet fully developed. Therefore, possible manifestations of unmotivated risk, inability to foresee the consequences of their actions and so on.

Higher education has a huge impact on the development of the individual. Under favorable conditions young people develop all levels of the psyche during the student’s period. Obviously, for a successful study at the university, a fairly high intellectual level of development is necessary. With a slight decrease in this level, compensation is possible due to increased efficiency or increased motivation. An important role is played by the ability to social adaptation. It is a condition for active and effective activity. The process of adaptation is different for young people and young people, for young people with work experience, for example, adaptation to the conditions of student life is easier, recent students are more easily adapting to academic work. Thus, the task of teachers and especially the student group is not to find a certain average option, but to create conditions for the overall most optimal activity.

An important educational function in higher education is played by humanitarian disciplines. The study of humanitarian disciplines in higher professional education began in fact from its inception. Already in the Middle ages, the teaching of humanities was compulsory and pursued a specific goal – improving the moral and intellectual level of the student. Within the framework of humanitarian disciplines, various moral and ethical problems of man and society have been raised and are being raised, which makes it possible for future professionals to develop such qualities as humanism, patriotism, disinterestedness and others [3]. One of the effective ways of implementing the educational task in the classes on humanitarian disciplines is the method of small groups, which allows a group of 4-5 students to solve the task assigned to it, and in the course of its implementation learn how to cooperate with each other, respect the opinion of another person. Also, within the framework of the discussions at the seminar sessions, the student realizes that the rightness may not be on his side, and that the exchange of opinions is more important than personal authority [4]. The success of the work of the group largely depends on the form of organization of its activities. So the collective-cooperative group is organized on the basis of close interaction of all group members. Individual – is based on the independent work of each member of the group. The coordinated group assumes the independent work of each member, but with the correlation of the process and the results of work with the other members of the group. Most often, with the exception of some types of complex creative work, the collective-cooperative form of organization of the group is preferred.

In the process of working with students, the teacher should take into account not only the mental potential of young people, but also the level of motivation and life circumstances. It is necessary to teach the student the most optimal organization of labor. Do not forget about the realization of the most important need for communication, as in communication students learn not only others but themselves, they master the experience of social life. Thus, the psychological development of a person’s personality is a dialectical process of the emergence and resolution of contradictions, active work on oneself.

The teacher should raise in the student and the desire for continuous education throughout life. This principle is fundamental in the framework of the competence approach of the modern system of higher education in Russia. Accordingly, the main task of the teacher is to create an atmosphere of interest for each student in the learning process, as well as to organize joint activities of students to solve a complex educational problem. The teacher should awaken in the student the desire to solve complex problem situations, while helping each other. In order for the educational work to have the desired result, the teacher should try to provide positive feedback to students, encourage them to assess themselves and their actions, and in the future also to make corrective actions. As the organizer of academic work, the teacher should not forget about the encouragement of students (for example, praise, approval, support and others).

One of the best ways to have an educational effect on students is dialogue. It is very important for the teacher to establish a dialogue both in the “teacher-student” mode and in the “student-student” mode. During the dialogue, students can solve complex problems, critically think, communicate, debate. It is also the dialogical form of communication, unlike monologic, that affects the emotional sphere of a person. And it is important here that the teacher’s ability not only listen attentively to the opinions of the students, even if they are erroneous, encourage them, but also be the most capable of tolerance and mutual understanding [5]. The method of group discussion for making optimal decisions is especially effective when discussing ambiguous questions on which there is no unanimous opinion among researchers (which is typical for humanitarian disciplines). The point of collective discussion of such issues is not to inevitably come to an unambiguous answer, but in understanding the essence of the problem and in the possibility to evaluate possible solutions and points of view. The main thing in such discussions is that the members of the group learn to reason logically, convince, defend their position, accurately formulate their thoughts and listen and understand other people. Work in the discussion group should be based on mutual trust, openness and an atmosphere of benevolence, in which even seemingly strange opinions do not cause negative reaction from the members of the group.

Thus, the role of the teacher in educating the future professional is significant and important, despite the fact that sometimes you have to deal with fully formed personalities. Only through direct communication and personal contact, some people pass on their life experience to others, which includes almost everything human that exists in modern man: from elementary skills and use of speech to abilities for various activities and moral values.

To summarize, we note that the upbringing of a person is a process that goes on “a red thread” throughout his life. Education of a person, a citizen, a specialist is of great importance in the education system, beginning with the birth of a young child, and then in the framework of preschool, school and vocational education. Parents and teachers help to grow a citizen, patriot, professional. Therefore, the educational process is an important component of the education system in Russia both at the present stage and in its historical past.