Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

WORD FORMATION IN TURCOLOGY: THEORY OF MOTIVATION AND NOMINATIONS

Odanova S.A. 1 Shoibekova G.B. 1 Zhangabayeva N.A. 1
1 Kazakh State Women’s Teacher Training University
1834 KB
Along with the study of language, it is necessary to study a language picture of the world in a diachronic look. This results from the fact that the history of language is closely connected with essence, outlook, consciousness, thought and practical experience of the person. The history of the person formation is a development of the world in the practical way, his knowledge and the doctrine. Knowledge and study give an ability to think abstractly. Abstract thinking is considered a generalized way different objects and phenomena that are rich in various features and properties. It is concluded form the conceptual perception of the world. Thus, the real picture of the world engages with the tongue. The real picture of being dubbed a language picture of the world, formed in accordance with certain natural laws. The real picture and subjective thinking based on existing patterns of development. Turning the world of images in the words of a person combines two things: first – a reality that is common to all mankind, and the second – national identity inherent in its nationality. They have an impact on the emergence of the word. Picture of the world did not come into contact with a man – this is the real picture of the world, and after the entry into interaction with a man, his consciousness, worldview, it becomes secondary. Thus formed the linguistic picture of the world. Consequently, the picture of the world, language picture of the world, the national language picture of the world – all these concepts are characterized in this way. Linguistic picture of the world – it is a fundamental principle of the birth of language, however, it is phenomenal. Linguistic picture of the world – a language law when the motivation of any denomination. The article reveals the role of motivational theories in the Kazakh language in the creation of the name. The characteristic of motivation as a result of theoretical and practical studies.
word
communication
motivation
word formation
derivative word
semantic phenomenon
motivational personality
motivated personality
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Stable expression “language – it is a means of communication” and has not lost its relevance today. If a person is going to live forever, then this tool will consistently continue to perform their function.

If the language – it is a means of communication, the language exists because of its one way, which adds to its functions, its value.

Indeed, to enter into communication state it is necessary to say, because the living world around us communicate with each other without words, while understanding each other. Hence, even if the words are absent, however, communication seems possible. Language is inherent in all animate entities, and yet, it should be noted that the language used by the person represents different concepts, promotes mutual understanding and provides the consumer demand. As a result, a number of different grammatical changes people establish relationships with each other language. Word – the first necessity for communication.

There are many different opinions about the science of language. In his textbook “Linguistics” A. Hasenov said that word in terms of value and structure has individual characteristics, it is – part of the language, at the same time with its help people communicate with each other and understanding each other only occurs through words, because it is an overriding unity of language. This statement of the scientist proves that word is first necessary unity for the communication. With the turn in the course of time the word human world-knowledge, his views on the world around us as a result of external perception.

In general, society’s past and future, formation and development of historical identity, perception of the world are eternal matters of entire humanity. The matter of language which has always been a tool of interrelations among humanity is the heart at any time. We can see how our nation’s spiritual development significantly matures through language units of vocabulary which are clear facts of every period of language development, some piece of certain historical conjuncture saved in scrolls, or research of complex of written monuments showing safe characters of each era [1, 32].

Word through mental activity, comparison and contrast, cardiac perception, emotion filled with meaning and enter into the development phase. So, in the words of the unity of form language.

One of the founders of the Kazakh language, K. Zhubanov, defined the relationship between language and the word, said: “The idea – this knowledge about the man or about the world. Word – is the name of the results of this knowledge” [2, 140].

Man throug hout his life paid attention only to the things that he had received any benefit or harm. Only the differences among those herbs that can be used as animal feed, as a fuel, as a poison, for paints, for the treatment, the man gave the plant the name of Compliance. Likewise they added other things. As a result, that meant already know the thing we call the word.

K. Zhubanov’s adoption at that time was set out an affordable, simple, clear and understandable language, and it must be admitted that this is the correct characterization.

The first words in our language, performs communication functions used by an individual without any additions and applications. For a small child it explains the necessary thing without any attachments and additions, as well, and the first words of our communicative meet the requirements in the form of roots is not entirely clear. From this perspective, the view of K. Zhubanov that man creates words from the practice of perceiving the world and life situations, is very true.

In our opinion, the creation of new words, simple, without any additions, filling them with meaning, the spread began in very ancient times. The fact that the first words were no applications that they have arisen by comparing subjects and these subjects were called so, and not otherwise, the following example shows.

For example, if the fluid to quench thirst, called by water, and all related material on it was also called.

The fact that the external design of the words water, milk, liquid, drink the same way, as evidenced by their conceptual basis and the level of perception.

Because as well as water, milk – it is a liquid, and the color of there is similar. Only the color of milk when compared with water is whiter.

Therefore, there suffix -m indicating plural. In our opinion, the suffix -m in this case is used to indicate the density of the color of milk.

The formation of words play an important role linguistic and extra linguistic factors. For the birth of the new name must be nominative observance of linguistic and extra-linguistic regularities.

If the linguistic factor determines that the internal semantic structure of words, the performance of the valence patterns, line marking persons in the definition based on motivational laws, united in a single schema that defines the nominative individual characteristics, maintains unity of content, thus defines the marking of the new concept, the most important category extra linguistic factor is time. To the novel word semantically anchored, words, users must make a great effort. To consolidate the words in the language (connotative significant word, the word significant, variable word, generally speaking, the newly formed, but not fixed) is greatly influenced by two factors. The first, derived words take on a stable character, provided that their communicants use very often, the second – it is clear that in order to fix them in a language takes time. If the time is not enough, and the use of the word binding is quite impossible. “Will the newly formed words are necessary, whether it will be accepted by the people, it depends on the relationship with the internal semantic structure of the word and its meaning” [3, 109].

The words “ice cream”, “cottage”, “champagne”, “stop”, and others. The author of which is in the Kazakh language I. Zharylgapuly acquired today a special attraction, and what they have become a necessity for great communicators today influenced by extra linguistic factors.

Inside the semantic meaning of the words correspond directly indicating denotation values accurately and clearly correspond to the concept. The values of these derivative words can determine the features of nominative value, formed in the society.

Referring to the next word, which was formed as a result of extra linguistic factors.

For example, the word “hello”“, which is pronounced when talking on the phone is a greeting. People at the meeting to greet each other, but with the passage of time while talking on the phone has become a welcome speech interjection. This indicates that the word takes on a different meaning, necessary for communicative relationship, changing its scope.

The refore, a change in the use of words depends on the application of the communicants. If we compare the words “ice cream”, “cottage”, “champagne”, “stop”, then fix the word “hello” in the language there is a difference. If the first created by the famous author, taking into account the internal laws of language, the second turned into a new quality on the basis of the inversion values.

The consolidation of both words in the language of the special place takes time. Thus, we can conclude that the language – a phenomenon that is not subordinate to the individual, having social, community, mental features, based on a coherent system. The linguistic, extra linguistic, historical factors – a phenomenon peculiar to the language system. The richness of the language, engaging in semantic development of speech, acting in various shades, is closely related to compensation needs to communicate.

Humanity is at the dawn of its inception to use the word without any affixes these words, developing in accordance with the laws of the language used for communication purposes.

In this regard, the word can be characterized as a category, performing the communication function. The language, along with the consideration of his motivational, linguistic picture of the world should make sense in a diachronic. This is due to the fact that the history of language is closely related to the essence, ideology, consciousness, thought, and practical experience of a person. The history of man – is the practical development of the world, his knowledge. A knowledge creates abstract thinking.

Abstract thinking is the way, which embodies various features of mental and items are rich in a variety of properties and qualities. It reflects the characteristics of the conceptual perception of the world. The reality of the world in this way reacts with the language.

The real picture of consciousness, called “linguistic picture of the world” is formed on the basis of certain natural laws.

The real picture of consciousness, called “linguistic picture of the world” is formed on the basis of certain natural laws. The reality and subjective thinking is based on the laws of development. When a person makes the picture of the world in words, it combines two elements: first – being common to all mankind, and the second – being characteristic of their nationality.

Both of them have an impact on the process of word formation. Picture of the world, which has not yet come into contact with a man – this is the real essence of the world, and after the entry into interaction it becomes a secondary character in contact with the thinking man, his consciousness, worldview.

Thus formed the linguistic picture of the world. Consequently, the picture of the world, language picture of the world, the national language picture of the world – all of them are characterized in this way.

Linguistic picture of the world – it is a fundamental principle of origin of the word, however, phenomenal. Linguistic picture of the world – a language law motivation of any denomination. We believe that the derivatives of words of the language, especially were developed through the semantic method, closely related to the language picture of the world. The problem of studying the derivatives of words has not lost its relevance to the present.

This is, firstly, requires research in terms of word formation, allowing the development of language diversity and richness of the meanings of words, the whole language system. That is why the study of derivatives of names created by the semantic method that should be considered in terms of derivation, it is today a major in the teaching of the language. Only the semantic analysis of the word derivative helps to identify a particular unity of the language system.

Semantics defines the phases of life tags: extension of meaning, distribution, characteristics, value and appearance of names, etc. With this in mind, we will try to reveal in this section using different vocabularies meaning of the word, his motivation.

When the value of the derivative referred to the words formed by the semantic method, we aim to describe ways to motivate them to each other. That word, evolving with the meaningful aspect acquires two meanings can be associated with the perception of the world of humanity. Through the analysis of the meaning of derivative words we consider the structure of the word. With this in mind, in this section, we consider the following questions:

– The basic concepts and features of formation of semantic structure of motivated words;

– Definition of the role of human cognition in the words of motivation;

– Semantic change in the process of word formation;

– The study of the various features of motivating words to each other.

When considering the semantic structure of derivative words by semantic approach is of particular importance is the definition of what are motivating and which motivated.

Two linguistic units (a derivative of the word and the unity that contributed to the formation of a derivative of the word), one of which is the source of derivation – motivating unity, the second – the result of derivation – motivated unity.

Motivating words, their influence on the emergence of new words has long been debated. The concept of motivation originates from the ancient philosophy. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato formulated the concept of the “world of things” and “the world of ideas”. Later, these concepts are collectively known as the “inner form of the word” and began to designate the main feature of the theory of motivation.

Ferdinand de Saussure, given the rules of justification “relativity”, related to the quality, activity type, quantity of any word or words, based on the free-hand, focused on the variation of the words and meaning of personal character.

In onomasiology synchronous and word-formation motivation has come to signify the basis of scientific concepts.

So, this phenomenon came to be regarded as a basis for derivation. Relevance of the research phenomenon motivating words that are based on semantic methods, can be traced from the next.

1. As stated by de Saussure, “is the word will not contribute to the emergence of each other’s language development is impossible” [4, 165].

2. The role of linguistic signs, motivating each other, in the process of word formation is high.

3. Motivated relations, which are considered a particular phenomenon of motivation, have the same qualities as the system of synonyms and antonyms. This is due to the fact that their semantic facets linked.

4. Although among the derived words formed with the help of semantic methods, there are motivational communication, in their internal contents and activities there are similarities and differences.

Motivating the word has an impact on the use and semantics of motivated words.

The theory of motivation is closely connected with the theory of the category of science onomasiology. Because the birth of a new name, this phenomenon has a special place. Nomination – a multifaceted phenomenon. It is closely intertwined with the theory of motivation, addressed by the derivation. Considering separately the values motivating personality and motivated person, at the same time it is impossible to separate them from each other. Being dependent on each other, are separate words with an individual sense.

The process that exists among independent and free of concepts, we call word-formation process, and concepts that are the basis of this process, called word-formation concepts.

The derivative word formed by a semantic method – it motivated the floor, having a special semantic structure, which arose as a result of the well-known linguistic sign, the real picture.

Russian scientist D.N. Shmelev characterizes the term “motivation”, “Motivation ... full or partial output of the complex whole of the value of parts of the whole” [5, 101].

Considering the special theory of motivation in the derivation as a research object, S. Ulukhanov claims that derivational motivation at least two words will come in the future, motivational attitude.

a) that the two words are derived from the same root,

b) says that the essence of a word passes to the second fully or partially [6, 7 pp.].

In determining the features of the derivatives of words in the different semantic structures with the aid of the semantic approach different seme, drop-down in the process of language analysis, occupy a special place. The initial value of the derived word to other concepts serve as guidelines and the starting point.

From this we define the two positions:

– That the words involved in linguistic analysis, are the same root;

– It can be argued that any word, participating in the linguistic analysis refers to reality;

Analysis of the word in terms of its meaning – it means to analyze it from the point of view of the law of motivation.

Motivating words based on its structural and semantic features, and sound envelope of speech – on the lexical and structural relationships.

Russian scientist O.I. Blinov explained basing words with such scheme:

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The clarification of the word usually refers to the fact that it consists of a unity of sound and meaning. O.I. Blinov’s explanation in the definition of the word motivation is very close to this statement.

First, a word consists of sound envelope, and secondly, a sound membrane forms any form, thus believe that derivational form inherent value, after which comes the lexical content. The Kazakh language scientific papers on motivation, a little bit. The fact that the terms have different names indicative of failure of the research. For example, the terms of motivation, the basis of causality are widely used.

Although in recent years, scientists have recognized the term motivation, however during its application unanimity not observed.

In our basic science – the language – the names of plants, their study, the lexical composition, structure, morphological, lexical-semantic and grammatical features, as well as an explanatory note describing the complete transmission path in dictionaries – all this is reflected in the research scientist B. Kaliev “The names of the plants in the Kazakh language”.

Regarding the timing of the name, its features, and the author expresses the following thought: “We know that people’s history originates from the depths of centuries”. In this case, to argue that “it is the name of the primary” and “is the name of the second”, to be born with these people, to live together and to chronicle the emergence of each word. Only then we could get a comprehensive answer to this question. This, of course, not the power of anyone. There fore, we assume that one of the oldest types of plants – this is probably the name of the tree or branch, vegetable or fruit, or grain plants related family [8, 5].

One plant can have several names, it is, as the author claims, is dependent on the terrain, the soil, for example, zholzhelken – plantain, suzhapyrak – wet leaf, another name given to them, depending on who uses them for food, for example, bakazhapyrak – list for frog, tartarzhapyrak – attracting sheet: “assignment of different types of plant, the reason for a large number of synonyms in our language the names of these plants, as well as the existing multi-variant words associated with the selected motif while assigning names” [8, 49].

At the same time, we note that in the process of naming the people based on different properties, signs, symbols, quantity, quality, movement, destination and other reasons.

A.B. Salkynbay who studies it as an object of special semantics, clarifying the role of the theory of motivation in word formation, emphasizes its necessity, causality, the main role in the formation of any new words. Various linguistic data demonstrate the scale of motivation as the research object.

She proposes to consider ways of motivation separately, as the root of motivation, rationale, basic rationale of the system studies, unsystematic studies [9, 70].

The textbook for higher educational institutions “Word formation in the Kazakh language” given the following definition: “Motivation – semantic and structural study of derivatives of words in the sense of its components make up.

Given that preformative theory considers the words that take on special importance after the root cause of the foundation and meaning in the structure preformative sense nominating names in separate sections of the language sphere of motivation of word formation is seen as a separate branch of linguistics” [10, 97].

The Republic of Kazakhstan keeps working to increase the credibility and relevance of the state language in all fields, and especially in the professional field. President Nursultan Nazarbayev noted the high unifying role of the state language. In his address to the people of Kazakhstan, he spoke of the need to enhance its role in the state. In the light of national revival and improvement of the country’s competitiveness, the emphasis was laid on the language policy. The state program of languages development for 2010-2020 in the Republic of Kazakhstan emphasizes the specific areas of work to raise the standing of the state language. The President in his 2004 address noted the need to apply innovative technologies in the field of education in this respect [11].

Special scientific studies were carried out that the new name was created as a result of the preservation of certain language units in Kazakh and Turkish languages and published in scientific publications in the national and international rating and proved in the scientific community [13].

Questions motivational theories have been considered in the U. Adilbaeva, M. Sarsembayeva, Zh. Akimisheva’s written on the basis of the master’s thesis.

U. Adilbaeva in their research paper on the motivation of names of plants in our language, the foundation took motive, theory of motivation, their role as the terms, place, and description of the conceptual motivation in other areas of science, communication theory word formation nomination, based on the types of plants.

He considers motivation for plant names into 4 parts:

– A sound motivation,

– Morphological and synthetic motivation

– Syntax and analytical motivation

– Lexical and semantic motivation [14, 11].

Researcher based separation methods on 4 kinds of word formation gives the following definition of motivation: “Motivation – section lexicology that studies the connection between the word and the object.”

If the word-formation motivation is considered to be regularity in the transition to the name, the lexicology it can be the object of study only after full readiness.

And motivation is considered word-formation process and acquires the form of phrases. The same view is found in Zh. Akimisheva’s scientific work “Motivation names ornaments and symbolic nature (lingvo-сultural aspect)”:

“Motivation – this is one of the areas of lexicography, which deals with the nature of language development and its motivation in a certain period, is aimed to study the connection between the word and its meaning at the time of origin of the word” [15, 18].

The author speaks of the dispersion of research scientists’ nature of the relationship between the object and its name: claims that they blend with the terms of motivation, motivated, motivation, motivate, base proof.

That’s right to take “motivating” – stimulating and “motivation” – argument. Because we conclude that place in modern linguistics terms for the study of linguistic unity demands it.

Known to science:

– Full motivation;

– Partial motivation;

– Motivation system;

– Systematization by dividing non-systemic similarity of motivation are in the works of all researchers.

Comparing the determination, motivation data in Kazakh and Russian linguistics, summarizing the definitions given in the concept of motivation section of the Kazakh language, we can conclude:

The fact that phonetic features of Kazakh and Turkish languages are associated with the wordformation is also published in foreign publications [16].

In conclusion, motivation – a pattern that satisfies the human need in a language based on meanings, by motivating all the primary word in the language (phonetic, semantic, semantic, synthetics-semantic, analytical and semantic) and form a common language picture of the world.