The beginning of the 21st century is the epoch of the dominant moral paradigms destruction, when commercial side, pragmatism and utilitarian side press high moral values. Everything influences as culture and society in all, as the quality of the education.
The competence approach in modern high school opened new perspectives in the educational process. The competence approach in the higher education is the change from theory to professional competence. But the effectiveness of the approach may be based only on universal etic norms.
“Competency” is the index of the essential system characteristic of the person of the school-leaver. It was important to become not only a professional, but to be a fully developed person. So the new aim of the global educational sphere appeared – personal approach. So the priorities are transformed gradually, so the main factor is the formation not only a specialist, but the person itself. This is really important in medical education.
So common cultural and professional competences are really important, especially the foundation of the worldview position and civil position, the readiness to be social and ethical responsible in case of making serious decisions, readiness for self-development, self-realization, self-education, use of artistic potential, ideas of tolerance, capacity and readiness of realization of ethical and deontological principals in professional activity – they give the policy of the founding a “human” doctor in the high school.
Education is the awakening of the humanistic in human, the cultivation of the soul. The personal approach make an accent at normative definite knowledge, skills, experience, as competences, transforming them into the state of bifurcation, changing qualitative characteristics, that helps the synthesis of experience and knowledge.
The result of the approach is the morality of the person, developing of the human to his real nature. The morality becomes the base, on which the fully educated person is formed.
The main problem of education in any discipline (even if it is medical or humanitarian) is the solvation of such questions of: What to teach? How to teach? What should the person know? If the answer to the first question is pretty simple: the real knowledge of the subject, then the question “how to teach” is a methodological problem. A lot of methods and techniques of the teaching exists, but we should speak about a global method, which would include all existed methods, so here we come to the problem of the humanization.
The essence of the humanization in education is the addressing not only to the intellect, but also to the emotions, it is awakening, concentration, filling with the new meaning of human emotions. The humanization of the person is the upbringing the Human in the student (Me-conception), the formation of the person in all its spiritual nature.
So in the end “what should the person know?”, so what should be the level of the professional competency? What should the student get to himself at the level of the consciousness, unconsciousness, how the information can be memorised. So here the competence approach dominants.
It is impossible to know everything is a banal phrase. Much knowledge doesn`t mean intellect, so the vital wisdom says. But what should the student know? It is clear that the student memorise just the part of the received knowledge, so this depends from a lot of man factors (the level of the intellect of the person, the speed of the analysing of the information (development of the CNS-central nervous system), the readiness and desire to receive, from interest, from attention, from the capacity to work individually and in team (the level of communication), from the mobility, etc.
So in what is the effectiveness of the education through the personal approach contained? It is:
1) “to teach to learn”, so to show the way of receiving information (working with student`s books, monographs, magazines, the Internet), to teach educational techniques (making the summary, speed reading, etc.), and also universal methods of learning: generalization, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, etc.
2) “educating on the experience”, so using the experience and traditions of the clinical medical practice, formulation of the personal experience of the subject, whom the student appears in using skills and knowledge in practice. In the process of realization the working functions in practice or solving professional tasks in conditions of simulation centre at the trainers. The theory should not be without practice.
3) “self-educating”, when the very desire to learn becomes the main need and the main motive.
The education system must evolve! At the same time, one should not forget the main thing: education is the awakening of man in man, the “cultivation of the soul”. The value of the Person (“I-concept”) is the basis of the modern moral paradigm. Personality is a self-improving structure, and assistance in this process can be rendered only by such an education system, where the personal approach based on the principles of humanism dominates.