Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972


Tsahaeva A.A. 1 Gasanova P.G. 1 Daudova D.M. 1 Aminova J.K. 1 Kabieva R.A. 1
1 Dagestan State Pedagogical University
Results of empirical research of individual and psychological features of students with various level of educational and professional motivation are reflected in article. Some approaches to a motivation problem are reflected in domestic and foreign psychology, and also to a problem of the characteristic of student’s age.
educational and professional motivation
structure of motivation
external and internal motives of educational activity
emotional stability

At all variety of approaches to consideration of development of the personality in the period of students researchers directly or indirectly point that the leading factor causing it is the position taken by the personality in relation to educational, i.e. actual for it, activity and to professional, i.e. perspective, activity. The identity of the student develops in the presence of educational and professional leading activity, and development assumes a transition period from self-determination before clearing of specifics of a profession, formation of an image I the professional. At the same time the educational and professional motivation of the student reflecting an orientation of his personality acts as an important factor of personal development. The motivation is one of fundamental problems in psychology. Complexity and versatility of the problem of motivation causes plurality of approaches, to understanding of its essence, nature, structure, and also ways and means of its formation and development.

Materials and methods of research

The motivation is connected with requirements and motives, outlook of the person and features of his idea of themselves, personal features and functional states, with experiences, knowledge of Wednesday and the forecast of measurement, with the expected consequences and estimates of other people. H. Hekhauzen points that the concept “motivation” is often used as descriptive, pointing that the behavior finds focus. In a number of theoretical statements not observable “intermediate processes” which are entered for a communication explanation between initial conditions and the subsequent effects are also called motivation [4, р. 408]. P.M. Jacobson speaks about a possibility of use of the term “motivation” in narrower and in a broader sense. In the first case it is motivation of concrete forms of behavior of the person, in the second – set of those psychological moments by which the behavior of the person in general is defined [5, р. 227]. The main characteristic of the motivational sphere is the hierarchy of motives which allows to reveal personal sense of activity for the person. The general name for processes, methods, means of motivation of trainees to productive cognitive activity, active development of content of education is the concept “educational motivation”. The motivation of educational activity usually is understood as all factors causing manifestation of educational activity – requirement, the purpose, installations, call of duty, interests, etc. However, the motivation of the doctrine in general is not the sum of motivations of studying of separate objects, and the new more difficult education having the specific signs. We understand motivation of the doctrine as a complex of motives to educational activity and after A.K. Markova we recognize that the motivation of the doctrine consists [2] of many factors which are constantly changing and entering new relationship with each other. Motives of educational activity can be external and internal. The strongest external motive of educational activity, according to L.V. Zankov, is receiving good and excellent marks. When similar motives, overcoming of difficulties, tension about which it is told in didactics work, occur for achievement of the purpose which is external in relation to knowledge, and mastering knowledge becomes means [1, р. 405].

Are even more sated with external motives study as the compelled debt, study process as habitual functioning, study for the sake of leadership and prestige, aspiration to come under the spotlight, study for the sake of liberal remuneration, avoiding of failures, understanding of need of the doctrine for life, process of the doctrine as a possibility of communication, motive of a praise from significant persons. These motivated factors can exert noticeable negative impact since in case of external motivation positive changes can take place only until receiving promised by the trainee. In the researches L.V. Zankov allocates the following signs of external motives of educational activity: the doctrine for the sake of the doctrine, without interest in the taught subject; the doctrine for the sake of private interests and benefits; the doctrine for social identification; the doctrine for the sake of success or because of fear of failures; the doctrine on coercion or under pressure; the doctrine based on moral obligations (the standard norms); the doctrine for achievement of the purpose in ordinary life; the doctrine based on the social purposes, requirements and values [1, р. 319]. V.P. Petrov and A.T. Rostunov’s researches confirmed a great influence of power of professional motivation and its structure on success of activity [3].

Results of research and their discussion

Proceeding from modern psychological representations concerning the category “motivation”, we understand set of the resistant motives having a certain hierarchy and the expressing focus of the personality as the motivational sphere of the personality. Besides, we recognize from the fact that the motivation has significant effect on success of professional activity and training. We undertook empirical research of personal features of students with various level of educational and professional motivation. Selection of examinees was made by 120 students of 3–5 courses of humanitarian and technical faculties of DGPU and DGU of Makhachkala.

For studying of educational and professional motivation of students the Motivation of the Doctrine test representing the questionnaire offered by V.Ya. Yakunin for students of higher education institutions was used. It allows to characterize quantitatively five primary groups of educational motives of students: professional, developments (informative), utilitarian (pragmatical), socially important and personal prestige. This selection of the studied motives is based on data of the numerous researches which showed that the motivation has structure, multiple-valued on contents and forms. In its structure of V.A. Yakunin and other authors allocate professional motives (success of training is defined by steady and conscious choice of profession, desire to become the qualified specialist, it is closely connected with a professional orientation), informative motives or motives of development (aspiration to professional personally growth, receiving new knowledge, satisfaction from the process of knowledge, participation in facultative occupations, studying of additional special literature outside the training program), pragmatical or utilitarian motives (it is good to acquire the current training material, to avoid punishment for omissions in study, not to start occupation, to receive a profession with a high salary and social privileges), broad social (socially important) motives (to bring benefit to the state and society), motives of personal prestige (to be an example for other students, to get approval of teachers, parents and friends, to have good situation in society and to approve itself as the personality, aspiration to career). The technique “Motivation of the doctrine” includes 20 statements demanding the end: “In study for me the most important – …”. Surveyed has to estimate the importance of each of statements on 5 to a mark scale: the extreme pole of an assessment in 1 point corresponds to the minimum importance of this statement for surveyed, and an assessment of 5 points – the maximum importance of the statement. On the basis of the received values the histogram of distribution of estimates is under construction, and levels of expressiveness of motives, the dominating group of motives, and also their general structure at the specific student and are determined by selection in general. As a result the average arithmetic value of five groups of motives is counted (professional, informative or motives of development, utilitarian or pragmatical, socially important motives, motives of personal prestige). By results of complex inspection of educational and professional motivation three levels of development of motivation were allocated (high, average and low), and all students were broken respectively into three groups on expressiveness at them educational and professional motivation. As a result the low level of motivation was shown by 34 persons, the average level 62 respondents and at 24 students is revealed the high level of motivation of the doctrine. Studying of specific features of the identity of students was carried out by us by means of Kettell’s questionnaire (13 PF). The 16th factorial personal questionnaire of Kettell (13 PF) – a contracted form which is intended for an assessment of degree of expressiveness of 13 personal lines offered by R. Kettell as model of structure of the personality. Adaptation of a questionnaire on Russian-language selection is carried out by A.G. Shmelyov, V.I. Pokhilko and A.S. Soloveychik. Styyudent’s t-criterion was applied to detection of distinctions in groups of students with high and low levels of educational and professional motivation. Apparently, reliable distinctions (p <0.05 and p <0.01) in the compared groups of students are revealed on the following factors 13 PF: C – emotional stability, E – dominance, H – courage, I – the hardness, Q – uneasiness, Q3 – self-checking, Q4 – intensity.

Factor “With” (“emotional stability”). Resistance to stress, an emotional maturity, endurance, working capacity are peculiar to students with the high level of educational and professional motivation, they are realistically ready, are better capable to follow requirements of collective, are characterized by constancy of interests. Students with the low level of educational and professional motivation are characterized by such qualities as low resistance to stress, emotional unbalance, changeability of mood and interests, irritability, fatigue, susceptibility to feelings, low tolerance in relation to frustration.

Factor “Е” (“dominance”). At students with the high level of motivation authoritativeness, aspiration to independence, independence, ignoring of social conventions and authorities are shown. They act safely, vigorously, actively, aggressively assert the rights for independence and demand manifestation of independence from people around. Low estimates of motivation are combined with conformality, inability to argue the point of view, lack of self-confidence and the abilities, dependence and subordination stronger, passivity, compliance.

Factor of “N” (“courage”). Students with the high level of educational and professional motivation show social courage, activity, readiness to deal with unfamiliar circumstances and people, they are inclined to risk, keep freely, is stirred up. Low level of motivation is peculiar to less confident in the forces, preferring to be in a shadow, differing in hypersensibility to threat. Factor “I” (“hardness”). Strength of mind, independence are peculiar to students with the high level of educational and professional motivation, they rely on themselves, do not suffer senselessness. Low level of motivation is shown in dependence, insufficient independence, helplessness, hypersensibility.

Factor of “Q” (“uneasiness”). Serenity, tranquility, composure self-confidence are peculiar to students with the high level of educational and professional motivation; with the low level of motivation – uneasiness, depressiveness, vulnerability, an impressionability.

Factor of “Q3” (“self-checking”). High level of educational and professional motivation is combined with self-checking of behavior, steadiness, good control of emotions and behavior, accuracy in implementation of social requirements, care of the reputation, attentiveness to people, is systematic and ordered by determination, ability to work, high strong-willed qualities, tendency to leadership; low level of motivation – with low self-checking of behavior, unbalance.

Factor of “Q4” (“intensity”). Slackness, tranquility, satisfaction and coolness are peculiar to students with the high level of educational and professional motivation; with the low level of motivation – intensity, a frustrirovannost, overexcitement, concern; the condition of frustration is caused by dissatisfaction of aspirations.


The received characteristics make a basis of a psychological portrait of the identity of the students possessing various types of educational and professional motivation and can be used in practice of psychological diagnostics and forecasting.