Current state of Kazakhstan education system is characterized by an active introduction of innovative technologies in the educational process. In terms of active modernization of pedagogical activity ever higher demands are made not only to teacher’s professional knowledge and skills, but also to the level of his personal self-development, his psychological and emotional stability.
The teaching profession, of course, has a great social significance, as a teacher in institute of higher education does not transfer simply professional experience; he also shapes the future specialist as a person and a professional. Therefore psycho-emotional state of a teacher, his health are very important aspect of the professional activity, these factors determine his performance, quality of teaching, quality of relationships with all subjects of pedagogical activities. Feeling-into (empathy), emotional involvement in the educational process is recognized as one of the most important teacher properties; however, not always enough attention is brought to this aspect of the training. This leads to the fact that many teachers are not psychologically prepared for the emotional overload, which makes by the profession.
As far back as 70 years of the twentieth century researchers noticed a fairly common condition of emotional exhaustion by persons engaged in the various aspects of communicative activity (teachers, doctors, social workers, psychologists, managers) .
Typically, these experts at a certain stage suddenly were beginning to lose interest to their activities, formally relate to duties, conflicting with colleagues on unimportant issues. Later they usually developed somatic diseases and neurotic disorders. The observed changes were found as cause of long-term exposure by occupational stress. Consequently, the term “burnout” was appeared, which in the Russian psychological literature was translated as “burn” or “burning” .
There is a single point of view on the essence and structure of professional burnout. According to current research, the mental burnout is a state of physical, emotional, mental exhaustion, which are manifested in the professions with emotional aspects. Professional burnout syndrome includes three main components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduction of professional achievements .
Emotional exhaustion is felt as emotional stress, emptiness, exhaustion of emotional resources. A person can not be engaged to work as previously, feels subdued, dullness of emotions, and emotional breakdowns are possible.
Depersonalization is a development of negative, callous attitude towards irritants. There is increasing impersonality and formality of contacts. Negative attitudes that are latent may begin to manifest as the inner restrained irritation, which can start to appear as tantrums or conflict situations.
Reduction of personal achievements are reflected in reduced feelings of competence at their work, in a discontent by themselves, reducing the value of their activities, in a negative self-perception in a professional aspects. The emergence of the sense of guilt for their own negative manifestations or feelings, reducing of professional and personal self-esteem, appearance of feelings of failure, indifference to work.
Educational activity – one of the most deforming human personality activities and teachers – are most susceptible to emotional burnout . Now the society is declared image of a successful person, this image of a confident man, independent and decisive, reached career. Therefore so many people try to correspond to this image to be in demand in the society. But more resources are needed to maintain a proper image of a modern teacher.
We grouped factors, which are causing burnout, into two large blocks by selecting the organizational factors and individual characteristics of the professionals. In modern conditions the activity of teacher of medical schools literally are saturated with factors causing burnout. It should again be emphasized that the incessant inclusion the teaching staff of KazNMU named by S.D. Asfendiyarov in the innovation processes is the distinctive feature of modern professional life, which is especially expressed in the transition to the new forms of social and economic activity at this development stage of Kazakhstan society. These fundamental organizational changes in many cases give rise to a mismatch between teachers’ characteristics of a new work situation and their habitual activities, which in turn determines the occurrence of pronounced stress conditions. New labour situation developing in KazNMU as in educational organization requires additional efforts from the staff to adapt to changing organizational environment that may have done with increasing the professionalism and success of work, and the disorganization of activity and the deterioration of health of workers. In the event of the teachers negative manifestations of occupational stress become too pronounced, the effectiveness of organizational change in general can significantly decrease. Among the many factors causing burnout, we can note a large number of social contacts per work day, extremely high responsibility, underestimation of professional contribution and importance of the leadership and colleagues, necessity to be in the good “form” all the time.
In this regard, it is particularly important to identify on specific researches which factors of work situation plays a crucial role in the emergence of professional burnout at different stages of organizational changes, what determines their dynamics and as well as how it affects on the functional status of the persons working in the organization.
We conducted a study to determine the most significant organizational and personal factors that cause emotional burnout among teachers. The first phase of the study was concerned with identification of the most important organizational factors that cause burnout among faculty. The study was conducted at Kazakh National Medical University, teachers from 36 (42 %) departments and staff from 3 sections participated in the study, overall 435 people were involved, 89 forms were spoiled. Professional burnout syndrome is closely related with long working hours, that are not evaluated properly, the content which is difficult to measure, requiring exceptional productivity or appropriate training, also to the fact that the governance does not comply with the content of the work. Therefore, in the questionnaires attention was drawn to the satisfaction of the work conditions. The results were following:
a) satisfied by operating mode – 18 %;
b) by workplace – 18 %;
c) by providing necessary materials for work – 15 %;
d) by the system of education – 16 %;
e) by the system of remuneration – 16 %;
f) by the control system – 17 %.
Thus, we can conclude that 92 % of respondents carry increased workloads, do overtime work, i.e. working hours are lengthened. In our study, 84 % of the respondents were dissatisfied by the system of remuneration, 83 % – by the control system, this directly leads to burnout syndrome, as a crucial role in the prevention of professional burnout syndrome is played by social support from colleagues, the university administration. For stimulation of teaching staff the correlation of remuneration with their own labours input and labour of his colleagues is more important than the absolute amount of remuneration, that is referred to as equity.
Also, we have identified the work factors that motivated teachers of KazNMU named by S.D. Asfendiyarov, they are located as follows:
1. The staff, friendly relations with colleagues – 23,8 %.
2. Confidence in the future – 23,5.
3. Self-realization – 19,4 %.
4. The financial incentives: high salary, benefits package – 12,5 %.
5. Good working conditions – 10,3 %.
6. Career prospects – 6,3 %.
7. Professional development – 1,9 %.
8. Interest to work – 1,3 %.
9. Excitement, competitiveness – 1,0 %.
Learning motivation of teachers performance has allowed us to identify three main factors, which affect on their emotional sphere: staff, friendly relations with colleagues; confidence in the future; self-realization. And it proves once again that the teaching activities are more exposed by emotional burnout.
In the course of studying of influence of socio-psychological factors on the formation of professional stress among teaching staff in KazNMU named by S.D. Asfendiyarov was identified organizational factors, conditions and organization of work, relationship with immediate supervisor, providing necessary materials; motives that are prevailed among teachers. Not satisfaction which leads to the lowering of efficiency and the development of occupational stress.