The teacher´s pedagogical culture provides the possession of the necessary set of knowledge and skills, which determine the formation of his teaching activity, teacher communication, teacher´s personality, as the bearer of certain values, ideals and the pedagogical consciousness. The pedagogical culture has its own specific features: attitude to the children, teaching activity, to himself as to the value; the transference of social-cultural experience to students through the guidance of cultural norms in educational activity; the use of innovative forms, methods, technologies of training and students´ education; a critical attitude to them and the creative transformation of educational activity [1-3].
The analysis of scientific literature has shown that pedagogical culture is seen as part of human culture (E.V. Bondarevskaya); the integral quality of the teacher´s personality, which projects his common culture to the profession, the synthesis of high professionalism and the internal properties of the teacher´s personality, the possession of the teaching´s methods and the presence of the cultural-creative skills (N.E. Vorobjev); a certain range of the value relations to education and child, which objectively and practically is implemented in the educational process (N.B. Krylova); a set of intellectual, moral, aesthetic, emotional and verbal cultures, which basis is the teacher´s common culture (V.A. Sukhomlinsky).
Synthesizing these definitions we consider the teacher´s pedagogical culture as the integrative professional and personal quality that combines the valuable attitude to the children, the teaching activity, to him- or herself, the support in the educational activity and behavior on the common cultural norms, an aspiration to the innovations and creativity.
We have identified the following components of the pedagogical culture of high school students - future teachers:
The motivational and valuable component, which defines cultural aspirations, the system of internal principles and persuasions in the necessity of mastering of the pedagogical culture as a professional and meaningful quality. This component is characterized by formation of the valuable notions, the presence of an integral «I-concept». The content of this component is presented in a professional-pedagogical orientation of the future teacher, which integrates the system of personal meanings, values, motivations and needs. They regulate the professional behavior of teacher in educational activity, and also reflect the psychological purpose of the development as a personal need, so the internal accepted persuasion.
The cognitive component presupposes the existence of general cultural knowledge, the integral pedagogical knowledge, which is directed at the valuable attitude to the students and the future professional pedagogical activity. The content of this component is characterized by the fact that a key element of the pedagogical culture is a cognitive competence. The cognitive competence synthesizes the system of knowledge and practical actions and determines the results of activity. It assumes the formation of knowledge, experience, that allows a successful decision of the professional tasks.
The activity component involves the stability of the basic plans of attitude to himself, to the world and their expression in behavior in appropriate pedagogical situations. The component characterizes the built image «I - a professional», the personal experience of the future teacher, which integrates knowledge, values, motives and needs. The content of this component determines the acquisition of experience, knowledge of pedagogical reality and the progress of skills, due to the professional activity develops.
The reflexive component is the ability to enter into a reflective stance in relation to the image «I» in the pedagogical culture. It is the ability to build and analyze models of the pedagogical culture in the communication with students. The content of this component is that due to the presence of the reflection the future teacher is able to implement his inward position to the teaching, to manage his activity, to achieve purpose.
All components of pedagogical culture of future teachers are interrelated and interdependent. Each of them carries the certain functions. The exception of one of them results in a violation of the structure´s integrity of the pedagogical culture of the future teacher.
The formation of pedagogical culture of high school´s students - the future teachers is a complex process, understanding of which should be carried out from different positions. From the position of the system approach, this process involves the revelation of its components, the establishment of systemic factors and the relationships between components and the definition of the system´s functions as a whole. To the external systemic factors of pedagogical culture of high school´s students - the future teachers, as a teaching system, we related: the purpose - the achievement of the ability and the willingness to realize the educational activity which is based on the rules and regulations and on the content of pedagogical culture; the management of cognitive activity in a particular type of the educational tasks. To the internal structural relations, we classified the relationships between the structural elements of the pedagogical culture, between the stages of the culture´s formation and the functional connections between the components of the pedagogical culture. The structural contexts of the pedagogical culture´s formation of the high school students - future teachers are represented as a system of the structural elements: social-cultural, professional and educational. The functional connections are established between the components of pedagogical culture.
The integrative-activity approach favours the orientation of the pedagogical culture´s formation of high school students - future teachers to the principles of the integration of the psycho-pedagogical disciplines´ content, excluding discrete and duplication of their content, disclosure of the integrity of the pedagogical culture in the structure of pedagogical that contribute to formation of a holistic perception of teaching activity, the individual in this process and reduce them to the theoretical picture.
The cultural approach assumes the consideration of the basic functions of the culture, which determine the definition of the process as a cultural and educational process through the transfer, actualization and the mastering of the pedagogical culture´s values, the forms´ creation of the self-determination, self-development and the self-actualization of students, the support of the efficiency of educational activity. This effectiveness provides the demonstration of pedagogical culture, the definition of the cultural status by the formation of pedagogical culture of high school students - future teachers (the cultural values, the cultural norms, the cultural interest, the cultural self-determination and development the cultural environment and the cultural situation).
The environmental approach provides an indirect control of the process of the formation of pedagogical culture and is a system of subject´s (student´s) actions of the control with an innovative educational environment, which is directed on transformation it into a means of designing and producing the result. The actions by formation of the environment are focused on the bringing of the features of the innovative educational environment in line with the objectives by the formation of pedagogical culture of high school students - future teachers.
The person-centered approach serves as a theoretical-methodological strategy and tactic for the formation of pedagogical culture of high school students - future teachers, which suggests the identification of the practical aspects of solving the problem that is based on the range of scientific experience. The result of the person-centered approach is the development of the self-realization, the aspiration to the enrichment and updating of knowledge, the comprehension of the need by the mastering of the components of teaching culture in the future teaching activity.
The system of formation of pedagogical culture of high school students - future teachers serves as a pedagogical system, a system-forming factor, an element of the system, a system´s component, and includes the main components of the pedagogical culture - the motivation-evaluative, the cognitive, the activity and the reflective and also describes specifically organized, purposeful interaction between the teachers and the future teachers, which is directed on the decision of the tasks.
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Ilyin V.S. Education and culture. - M., 1998. - 215 p.
Krylova N.B. Building the culture of the future expert. - M.: High School, 1990.
The work was submitted to International Scientific Conference «Topical issues of Science and Education», Moscow, May, 21-23, 2012, came to the editorial office 28.05.2012.