To allocate kinds of the public information is means to give certain classification by any bases. If to start with position as some authors do that the information is only a cybernetic category the question on classification of kinds of the public information would dare the same as in cybernetics. As marked A.D. Ursul, «it is characteristic that the cybernetics is interested mainly in information processing» . V.M. Glushkov wrote that «the cybernetics studies operating systems from the point of view of information transformation» [2, with. 225-230]. Actually, the cybernetics subject is usually defined through concept of management. Hence, classification can go by various kinds of administrative activity.
However such approach to classification of kinds of the public information was useful only at the first stage and most of all just to that has shown limitation of purely cybernetic approach and has raised the question about necessity of other bases of classification.
The scientific information is connected with manufacture of new knowledge. On spheres industrial and to other kinds of activity it is possible to distinguish also such kinds of the public information, as industrial, trading, bank, financial, scientific and technical, theatrical, sports; on requirement degree - long-term, flowing; on the importance - essential, insignificant; on carried out functions - communicative, scientifically-informative, orientatsionno-adaptive, kontrolno-operating. Each kind of the public information differs on subspecies.
The public information possesses corresponding properties. It is possible to allocate such parameters of the public information, as an urgency, novelty, reliability, completeness degree (insufficiency, redundancy), intensity or quantity (in bits, bytes), an optimality (the optimal value of course of certain information process), efficiency, reliability, availability.
Let´s stop on consideration of some of them. For addressees the validity of the information expresses reliability as something already established by the subject during public practice. Reliability transforms true, but not proved logically and practically, so to say, the information «in itself» into the information for the subject of an information work . Degree of development of the true information a society expresses reliability which is connected with its such characteristics, as completeness, depth, accuracy, definiteness.
The above-stated properties of the information express degree of the adequacy received by the consumer of pithiness of the information. With quantity of the information it is not necessary to mix them, as not always to increase of completeness and accuracy of the information conducts increase in quantity of the information; if the information displays insignificant and minor details it can increase only redundancy. Completeness of the information expresses not in general all information which can be extracted about a corresponding source, and only the most essential, that which can promote correct decision-making. Excessive completeness and accuracy can harm only, increase time and complicate decision-making. The validity and completeness of the information represent characteristics of the public information necessary for well-founded decision-making.
Talking about the informative and other information processes having mass character, it is necessary to use still additional characteristics of the information, except earlier considered. The information containing in the message, should be convincing, proved, demonstrative and frequently obvious; elements of its maintenance should be so are connected in system that it with the maximum force influenced audience.
In the public information the dialectics new and old (forgotten, left in the past) is shown also; it is necessary both display new, and to reproduce old trues for adequate decision-making. The oblivion or ignoring old, but the true information, orientation only on the novelty, not always justified, can lead to those, to results, as the dogmatism absolutizing old, and to turn simply to a pursuit of a fashion. Though the scientific information is focused on an increment new, nevertheless, such processes as recognition of old knowledge, streamlining of already received knowledge, information search and a number of other scientifically-information processes, are inevitably connected with «the old» information. For strengthening of the public information "the old" information is important not only in logic aspect, but also in the sensual plan - old messages which cause positive emotions - pleasure, pleasure, the pleasant memoirs calming or encouraging, are willingly consumed by recipients.
Efficiency of the public information is defined by some time interval in which the information is necessary for transferring and using, otherwise it will already become outdated and will be excluded from socially-information processes. Efficiency of the public information depends on an information source (the faster it changes, the the information by the consumer faster should be used) from used for its transfer and processing of means. Mass media, the Internet appear most operative of means of mass communications television.
The following characteristic of the public information - an optimality. The optimal value of course defined, in this case information, process usually understand as an optimum. If this process is managerial process here there is a concrete criterion of efficiency which in case of optimum control accepts the optimal value and more often - minimum or maximum (in the given conditions and at the given restrictions). The information which conducts to development of optimum strategy of decision-making in managerial process, is understood as the optimum information.
There are also such characteristics of the information in a society which cover its is formal-quantitative parties: the quantity measured in bits, bytes and other information units, redundancy of the information which can be used for more clear and accessible statement with a view of popularization and propagation. Redundancy also increases at hindrances and noise, it is harmful there where the information optimality, its efficiency and reliability decreases. Therefore for various socially-information processes and types of information the norms of redundancy are established.
Such characteristic of the public information as its reliability, that is ability to remain at transfer and use and to display thus the basic and the major in an information source is connected with redundancy. Only to it and to a noise stability by transfer on communication channels (on this basic attention the cybernetics turns) reliability of the public information isn´t reduced. Its validity, importance, absence of casual components which can affect decision-making, also here join. Not last role such characteristics of the public information, as its material carrier, the representation form, expressiveness, presentation, the brevity concerning more to the form of its existence and movements.
Ursul A.D. The information nature. A philosophical sketch. - М.: Politizdat, 1968.
Afanasyev V.G. Century Scientific and technical revolution, management, formation. - М., 1972.
Shljapentoh V.E. Problems of reliability of the statistical information in sociological researches. - М., 1973.
The work is submitted to the Scientific International Conference «Problems of information transmission and processing», United Arab Emirates (Dubai), October, 16-23, 2011, came to the editorial office on 26.07.2011.