The appearance of gender research particularly in the field of pedagogics is one of the significant achievements of humanitarian thought of the last quarter of the XXth century that continued its active development at the beginning of the XXIst century. At present the application of gender knowledge to the educational process is an essential requirement.
In this respect the notion «gender approach» is of particular actuality. We consider that gender approach may be regarded as a component of learner-centered approach taking into account «the individual peculiarities of a child in accordance with his/her sex» and thus supposing «the choice of teaching content, forms and methods of teaching and education, creation of a friendly (gender-sensitive) environment aimed at personality development in accordance with his/her abilities» .
The most debatable question is connected with means of gender approach realization in the educational process.
The conducted research in the field in question pointed out the possibilities of gender approach realization by means of a number of directions including creation of a peculiar educational process organization supposing the choice of forms, methods, techniques, tasks based on students´ gender-related differences, teaching content correction and new teaching materials development, establishing of various class and school types oriented towards practical approach realization and based on the model that is the combination of single-gender and usual education.
We believe that this model of education is the most preferable one for gender approach realization. It can be applied to the educational process of a modern comprehensive school without any negative changes. The educational model in question provides for single-gender education in gender-sensitive subjects such as languages and mathematics thus even intensifying the process of education .
The introduction of gender approach is reasonable but during its realization there is an opportunity to be faced with problems the most important of which is the lack of gender knowledge of teaching staff. Thus the first step of gender approach realization is the purposeful work with the teaching staff of a particular secondary school.
In the field of pedagogics gender approach is quite often associated with taking into consideration the peculiarities of functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemisphere. Basing on the principles of the cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry three gender types are distinguished: left-brain hemisphere, right-brain hemisphere and equal-hemisphere dominance gender types [1-3, 5, 8, 11-14].
The research results indicate students´ gender-related differences in styles of information processing that directly influences the learning peculiarities of various gender type students. Inductive, analytical and successive information processing, abstract characteristics perception are peculiar to left-brain hemisphere gender type students while deductive, integrated and simultaneous information processing, concrete characteristics perception are characteristics of right-brain hemisphere gender type learners.
According to the data of the research the proportion of left-brain hemisphere gender type students to right-brain hemisphere gender type ones is correspondingly «70,5 to 14,5 % (6‒9 years); 53,0 to 29,5 % (10-15 years); 47,0 to 34,0 % (15-20 years); equal-hemisphere dominance gender type is constant in all age groups 16,0-18,5 %» .
The identification of a student gender type being the second step in gender approach realization is possible on the grounds of the combination of motor tests, listening tests, Rosenbach test and the test by Melentieva T.I. [9, p. 43-44].
It is necessary to note that the main teaching techniques used during the education of the representatives of different functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemisphere organization (left-brain hemisphere and right-brain hemisphere gender type students) represent certain dichotomy. Thus, the mentation of left-brain hemisphere gender type students is notable for inductivity, abstract thought, objectivity, the ability to come to a conclusion basing upon determined rules; the thinking of the representatives of right-brain hemisphere gender type students is remarkable for deduction, imagery, concretization, subjectivity, specific perception of visual demonstration .
Verbal processes of left-brain hemisphere gender type students are based on the principle of word-generalization with the predominance of intentional speech while the representatives of right-brain hemisphere gender type are notable for unintentional speech, the verbal processes of this gender type are based on the principle of word-visualization.
Consequently the cognitive strategies of different gender types are distinct. Successive temporal stimuli, discrete presentation of information, rational approach to problems solving, detailed elaboration and partition of information are characteristics of left-brain hemisphere gender type students. Simultaneous spatial stimuli, uninterrupted presentation of information, intuitive, figurative, active approach to problems solving, synthesizing of information, perception of general features are typical for right-brain hemisphere gender type learners.
Presentation of new material also has its peculiarities. Students with left-brain hemisphere cerebrum asymmetry need step-by-step presentation of teaching materials with verbal explanation of rules. The perception of right-brain hemisphere gender type learners is more holistic and is based on the use of visual demonstration.
The significant features of working on the material under study are the following: left-brain hemisphere gender type students prefer the series of successive drilling tasks basing on oral memory, arbitrary memorization, usage of teaching texts, translation of texts into native languages; right-brain hemisphere gender type learners show preference to the tasks including reproduction resting on the model, base on sense memory, involuntary memorization and repetitions, prefer the usage of authentic texts trying to understand the meaning by means of guessing [9, p. 46-47].
The examination of students belonging to different gender types includes out-of-context multiple choice questions and regulation of time for the fulfillment of a task for left-brain hemisphere gender type students and context tasks without time limits for right-brain hemisphere gender type learners.
As it was stated above the choice of appropriate methods, forms and teaching facilities is of great importance for gender approach realization in the process of education. We consider that the gender-sensitive use of teaching methods is optimal that is explained by the forms and teaching facilities stability and variability of the method category.
We suppose that the gender-sensitive choice of teaching methods may be represented in the following way: perceptive methods of teaching such as verbal (discussion, account of events), visual (illustration, demonstration) and practical (drilling) are preferable for left-brain hemisphere gender type students and equal-hemisphere dominance gender type; visual and practical methods (experiment) are indispensable for right-brain hemisphere gender type learners.
The division of methods stated above reflects the cognitive development specific features of left-brain hemisphere gender type students having more developed verbal abilities that presuppose high effectiveness of verbal teaching methods usage, repetitions during new material explanation, non-verbal problems solving using verbal methods. Equal-hemisphere dominance gender type students have almost similar specific features as left-brain hemisphere gender type representatives that explain the choice of perceptive methods of teaching. Though verbal stimuli are the most preferable for the cognitive development activization of right-brain hemisphere gender type learners the fact does not minimize the importance of verbal methods especially at primary school thus only reflecting the specificity of this gender type.
Logical methods of teaching such as inductive and analytical are suitable for left-brain hemisphere gender type students, inductive, analytical and synthetic are preferable for equal-hemisphere dominance gender type while deductive and synthetic teaching methods are for right-brain hemisphere gender type learners. The distribution of logical methods is based on the preference of stereotyped tasks by left-brain hemisphere gender type students and abstract thinking inclination of right-brain hemisphere gender type representatives.
Gnostic methods particularly reproductive and research method are correspondingly for left-brain hemisphere, equal-hemisphere dominance gender types and right-brain hemisphere gender type. The choice of gnostic methods for each gender type is explained by facts verbalization tendency, orientation to information memorization, verbal abilities development of left-brain hemisphere gender type students and spatial thinking, spatial-temporal orientation, ability to non-standard logical problems solving and research activity of right-hemisphere gender type students.
Examining the category of forms of education we note the following correspondence: left-brain hemisphere gender type students, mainly female , inclined to individual, pair and frontal forms of education. The students of right-brain hemisphere gender type, mainly male, prefer group work (3-4 students) with the existence of a leader and the elements of rivalry, individual form that provides for self-actualization opportunities and collective form of education. Equal-hemisphere dominance gender type students need pair, group and frontal form of education.
The use of particular teaching facilities also depends on gender-related differences of students. Thus it is preferable to use auditory stimuli for the cognitive development activization for left-brain hemisphere gender type students and visual stimuli for right-brain hemisphere gender type. Equal-hemisphere dominance gender type learners are in intermediate position.
Visual teaching facilities (pictures, illustrations, photos, slides, tables; nonverbal teaching aids: facial expression, gestures, etc.) should be structured, logical, positively emotionally coloured when working with left-brain hemisphere gender type students while teaching right-brain hemisphere ones the use of diagrams, maps, symbols, schemes becomes more effective as it corresponds to their creative thinking.
Students of left-brain hemisphere and equal-hemisphere dominance gender types need the use of auditory teaching facilities. These types of students are receptive to words, phrases, intonation, expression, loudness, tempo, pronunciation, style of material presentation and require repetitions of explanations and reproductions of the material under study.
Right-brain hemisphere gender type learners, as a rule, content themselves with one-time new material presentation and increasing of the educational process effectiveness requires the use of audio-visual teaching aids: films, TV-programmes fragments, etc.
Kinaesthetic teaching facilities that form a separate group of teaching aids and include smart boards, devices, models, mockups are in need at primary school being required by motor-perceiving students.
We believe that the division of students into small groups in accordance with their gender type, educational process realization within the frames of the combination of the single-gender and usual educational models, taking into account thinking peculiarities, verbal abilities, cognitive strategies, peculiar features of presentation and working on the material, examination realization, choice of methods, forms and teaching facilities required by each gender type student are absolutely necessary being the third step of gender approach
Thus we consider that gender approach realization has practical importance for individual educational forms and personal abilities development. Conduction of gender research in the frames of educational system promotes the cognitive processes analysis of different gender type students, the changers of teachers´ type and integration of gender knowledge into pedagogical practice.
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The work is submitted to the Scientific International Conference «Current problems of education», Greece (Loutraki), October, 2-9, 2011, came to the editorial office on 03.08.2011.