Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,301


Nikitina T.A.

In the past maximal landings at the each of south seas of Russia were 400-600 thousands of tons. Naturally the landing of traditional objects of trade (sturgeon, zander, sea roach etc) has lowered in 10 times and more. For example, in the Caspian sea the landing of sturgeon began in the XVI century. To the end of XIX century the landings of valuable species of fish were 300 thousands tons, out of them there were 40 thousands of tons of sturgeons. Their final overfishing occurred at the beginning of 50ies of XX century. It has happened before the building of weir and chemicalization of agriculture (Matishov, 2004). At the Azov-Black sea basin there is observed the decrease of the general landings and changing of the proportions of valuable and low valuable species of fish.

The general tendency is the changing of landing structure. At the background of decrease of volumes of landing its base is compound by small fish, which were rated among not valuable. Possibly besides mentioned reasons on the structure of landing there has an influence the changing of climate. The influence of global climatic changes on the sea fishing is not finally researched, but occurring processes, particularly, the quick change of the water temperature and contents of oxygen in it, lead to the increase of population of the small species of fish, which have no economically high value, to the worsening of conditions of reproduction of valuable anadromous and semi-species of fish. The confirmation for this fact is the statistic of marketable landings. Thus, in the Azov-Black basin from the middle of XX century at the landings there are progressively prevail small species: Azov anchovy, sardelle, black sea sprat, and the landings of sturgeons for the last 20 years have sharply decreased from 1036 tons to 1,041 tons (in 2008) and are at the level, which is not only doesn´t provide natural reproduction, but at the verge of extinction at all.

In connection with this the development of commodity growth of sturgeon species of fish will allow to lower the load to the populations of sturgeons, to restore them at their natural environment and give to the populace, which is live in the Azov-Black region, supplementary work places.

The successful commodity growth of sturgeons is largely defined by the presence of feed. For the overcoming of crisis at the domestic feed-production there was set a task o continue researches by the searching of effective and inexpensive species of feed raw material, to cope with production of few component fish feeds. At the result there is reached the increase of volumes of production of aquaculture and guaranteeing to the populace the valuable food production.

The most effective and cheap type of feed for the sturgeons if the fish (Nikitina, 2003; 2004). While the fish nutrition there is preserved the most stable correspondence between protein and nonprotein exchange within sturgeons. Fish that is used as feed is the most balanced feed for sturgeons and is the base of their food at the natural conditions (Nikitina, 2006).

The catch of not valuable and small herring species is carried out 11-12 months a year, what make possible the growth of sturgeons during the whole year. The cost of feed fish is low: silversides - 10 rubles/kg, inedible sprat - 7,5 rubles/kg.

Thereby, the offered way is partly solve the problem of preserving of sturgeon species of fish and guaranteeing to the populace of Azov-Black region of naturally valuable delicatessen products.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Ecological monitoring», Turkey (Antalya) 16-23 of August 2010. Came to the editorial office on 29.07.2010.