In conditions of socioeconomic, political and ideological transformations implementation the social significance of their psychological supply grows. A discrete role thereat belongs to the psychological science and practice acquiring in latter days more and more significance in the basic spheres of the society´s life activity.
The solution of numerous social-psychological problems is made difficult by the insufficient theoretical and experimental-practical exploration of the questions associated with the psychological readiness ones.
The readiness problem has been in the picture of domestic works devoted to personal self-development problems, the personal potential realization, axiological objectives self-choice, life policies forming-up, in particular (Abulkhanova-Slavskaya K.A., Asmolov A.G., Bozhovich L.I., Dubrovina I.V., Dyachenko M.I., Kandybovich L.A., Zabrodin Yu.M., Zimnyaya I.A., Feldstein D.I., and others).
At the same time an insufficient format of psychological concepts, the corresponding conceptual mechanism and conditions of successful personal readiness formation are observed. It should be noted that there is both a scientific and practical demand for an integrated study of personal different fields´ (educational, vocational, sportive) readiness peculiarities in different stages of personhood achievement. A special social meaning is acquired by the revelation of psycho-pedagogical conditions for the personal readiness formation in the system of education.
The modern objectives of the higher education reforming determine, first of all, the strategy of higher priority attention to the personality of all the subjects of the academic process - both students and teachers. Nowadays the conviction, that the narrow-tactical «dedicated or technological approach» in education should give its place to a wider and more strategic «learner-centered or humanitarian» one, is being spread more and more.
The learning-educational process of getting higher education in a university is built on the fact that students should be oriented on being taught different subject skills and activities. Many students manifest their passiveness and dissatisfaction with the academic activity, cannot use and develop their motor, cognitive and creative abilities, which their teacher orient them on at classes. The lack of anxiety for active self-development and acquirement of professional knowledge and skills, creative abilities promotion can be associated with the predominance of the technocratic or dedicated training for the present time.
In the dedicated education in the process of academic activity the personal development is hardly taken into account (mainly is declared), the student´s anxiety for success, creativity, independence, initiative to solve professional, educational, problem tasks. So, Klarin M.V. gives the following didactic characteristic to the technocratic approach within an education model building .
The didactic searching in the tideway of the technocratic approach: proceeds from effective reproductive activity as a self-dependent value; preferentially directed to didactic aims of a low cognitive level; are personally neutral; make an accent on standardized educational procedures and suppose a positive emotional background, but, at the same time, personally neutral character of the student´s and the teacher´s involving in the academic process; put the teacher into the position of an operator-teacher . The main objective in the dedicated education - is the assimilation of subject-disciplinary knowledge on the teacher´s order. In this case, for the pedagogue, the learner (student) is an object for training and up-bringing.
In traditional education the teacher creates means, forms motives, shows aims, organizes conditions; the main trend of this education is the achievement of the required by the programs educational results and total control over the educational content and information obtaining. Such dedicated approach promotes only the development and formation in the learner of «passive-personal readiness»; according to K.D. Ushinsky, they are brought up by creatures «...constantly preparing to an activity and remaining dreamers forever...».
At the present time in education the attention is more and more drawn to the didactic technologies in the tideway of the learner-centered approach .
According to the learner-centered approach, it is important to implement certain psycho-pedagogical conditions in the process of the interaction of the student and the teacher, so that the learner appeared as a full subject of educational-cognitive activity. The main optimal interaction implementation form is the preparation, for the teacher - the professional-psychological preparation, where the prime attention is drawn to the professional development, self-determination; for the learner - the psycho-pedagogical preparation, where the prime attention should be aimed at the personal development. Under the given circumstances an active personaility readiness to self-development is formed through the system of «subject-subject relations».
The teaching process organization based on the learner-centered approach means that all the methodical solutions of the teacher, for example, the educational material organization, use of these or those ways and methods, should be refracted through the prism of the learner´s personality, his needs, motives, experience, abilities, activeness, mentality and other individual-psychological peculiarities.
The purpose of our work was the investigation of the student´s personality readiness formation peculiarities in self-development and creation of preconditions for professionalism in the context of educational activity.
In the course of an educational process the interests and needs for self-development should be taken into account and the student´s personality self-development preconditions should be created. The whole educational process of the academic activity should be aimed at an integral development of a personality, the consideration of its wants and interests in the field of getting higher professional education. The learning-educational process is becoming the process of self-determination in professional-pedagogical culture and education values in the course resting on the learner-centered and activity approaches.
A theoretical study of psychological literature and experimental research testified that the readiness in the conditions of a certain kind of activity - is an extended notion. In accord with the up to date knowledge it can be considered as a many-component and multivariate structure being characterized by certain set of signs for every activity.
The set of readiness signs in a certain kind of activity involves: the ideological, moral, functional, psychological, special (professional) and personal readiness.
The personal readiness is a necessary component for this organic whole, often being decisive for the efficiency and success of an activity. It represents one of peculiar psychic states of an activity subject.
As every other psychic state it is an integral manifestation of a personality, it is always causal, characterized by definite time parameters, has a dynamic (functional) system at its root. It means that, first, all its components are connected between each other; second, its functioning is subjected to the hierarchic principle; third the relations between the components are mobile and each of them, by virtue of the determining influence of an activity´s objective conditions, can be leading.
Joining a large cohort of scientists, specialists working in the field of psychology of personality, it should be emphasized that a successful activity depends not only on their relatively stable qualities, but also on more changeable psychic states. «Every psychic event happens as if against a certain psychic state of a person, which conditions its behavior, and later also its change», S.L. Rubinstein (1954) wrote. Therefore, both at a theoretical, but especially at a practical level the psychological testing of learners should be obligatory analyzed include getting not less than two personality parameters:
‒ individual-psychological makers of a personality;
‒ temporary psychic states of a personality, including reactive states.
At the differentiation of individual-psychological makers of a personality or stable qualities of a personality and temporary psychic states expressing them, their dialectic unity should be taken into account for the personality´s features can be vividly manifested for a short while in the corresponding psychic states, the personality´s stable feature itself appears to be a component of different states, the dominant role being played by it in their structure not necessarily.
Of course, the qualities of a personality have a corresponding effect on the course of psychic states, which, in their turn, influence the formation of personality traits, the professionally important qualities promoting an effective and successful activity among them.
The idea that the qualities of a personality grow from psychic states and the developed trait becomes the condition for new states formation was offered by N.D. Levitov (1971) already.
Thus, a leading specific activity results, on the one hand, in the formation of specific personality traits, and on the other hand, ‒ in working-out of temporary subjective states, which not only promote the efficiency of an activity, but determine the behavior of the activity subject as a whole.
One of important aspects while analyzing the inner conditions of an activity is an organic alliance of the substantial (qualitative) and energetical (quantitative) analyses of the personality structure as a whole, its separate components and their psychological manifestations. To provide such integrity in the personality activity source - the activity motivation, understanding is of prime importance. The simultaneous sighting of the substantial and energetical activity aspects, and the personality structure accordingly, is specific for their psychological study (Aseyev V.G., 1976).
For every kind of activity there is a certain set of substantial components (signs) - i.e. a specific syndrome including the majority or minority of personality characteristics.
The theoretical or experimental studies on psychology of personality served the conventional basis for the establishment of structural components of the personality readiness state syndrome for practical professionals-psychologists. The components are:
‒ well-developed intuition;
‒ high level of abstract-logical and social mentality;
‒ positive moral qualities;
‒ high level of empathy;
‒ role behavior wide range formation.
Such a personality readiness cannot be developed at a large scale, however, proceeding from the premise that the profession of a practical psychologist has actually become a very popular one, it is necessary, as scientists consider, to acknowledge that many specialists do not originally possess those necessary individual qualities, which further on allow making their work effective and professionally literate.
An essential practical importance of the personality readiness state in activity is in the fact that it represents a background, which, on the one hand, psychical processes aimed at the orientation of a subject in situations and conditions of the activity, adequate to these conditions self-regulation of actions, thoughts, feelings, behavior as a whole, solution of specific problems leading to the objective achievement, take course against. On the other hand, it is well known in psychology that stable personality traits grow from psychic states, and the developed traits become the condition for the formation of new the states providing the efficiency and success of the activity.
Thus, a certain activity (professional, educational, sportive) lead, first, to the formation of specific personality characteristics; second, to working-out of the readiness type personality states, which not only promote the efficiency of the activity performance, but also determine the behavior of a person as a whole.
It is readiness that, according to N.S. Pryazhnikov, should become the main objective of professional and personality self-determination (the synonyms of which are self-actualization, self-realization, self-fulfilment, self- transcendence). N.S. Pryazhnikov (2001) writes: «The main (ideal) objective of professional self-determination is gradually to form in the client the inner readiness to plan, correct and realize the perspectives of his development (professional, life and personality one) independently and consciously» .
The relevance of the topic is determined by the process of study and formation of conditions promoting the personality and professional growth.
Under the personality readiness we understand an individual-psychological directivity, tuning to voluntary activity, mobilization of abilities to active and rational skills, actions. The efficiency of personality readiness formation methods and means will depend on the degree of theoretical statements working-out by our laboratory and the system of estimation and criteria and regulation of psychic states and personality traits.
The personality readiness psychological theory must be founded on methodological statements of the determinism principle and learner-centered and activity approaches. The working-out of scientific humanistic paradigm about the place of personality readiness in the academic process and professional activity will be of an essential value.
That is why the scientific interest will be focused on the investigation of various kinds of readiness, its structure, component representation and mechanisms of transition, transformation of psychic states into stable personality qualities in conditions of academic and professional activity.
The analysis of theoretical and methodical literature allowed us to detach the components of students´ personality readiness formation and to define the psychological-pedagogical conditions for the formation of these components. Their close relevance and supplementation with each other will promote the effective self-realization of professional actions and personality manifestations of students at sessions on the selected speciality. It will be manifested in the fact that the pedagogical skills´ separate component formation realization occurs only with the organization of all the complex of conditions. Psycho-pedagogic conditions play a key role in the formation and development of the marked by us components.
The most important psycho-pedagogic conditions for the student´s personality readiness are:
1. The transfer of the student from the position of an education and upbringing object into a self-development subject.
This condition will be implemented if:
‒ a subject-subject interaction of all the participants of the educational process has been guaranteed;
‒ the situation of success in the academic activity has been created, that conditions the provision of positive growth experience for a student in the group´s and teacher´s presence, that stimulates a further work of the personality over himself and is the source of self-development and self-bringing-up;
‒ the interpersonal relations, which suppose the creation of mutual understanding, kindness and openness at classes, have been formed. A teacher should become a true tutor having interest and respect with students.
2. The personality readiness specific components representation.
The personality readiness represents a form of superstructure, a system reaction on the corresponding real or predicted situation, the information content of which is integrated into a mental model providing such a reaction. The quality of the state is determined by the degree of its adequacy to the activity implementation content and objective conditions. The personality readiness involves the following components:
‒ motivational - the interest, aspiration to achieve success, need to achieve the aim;
‒ cognitive - the understanding of problems, duties, knowing means towards the end, skills to forecast own activity;
‒ emotional - the confidence in success, inspiration, feeling of responsibility;
‒ conative - the sense of purpose, i.e. subjection to a purpose, mobilization of forces, concentration on the problem, abstraction from troubles, overcoming doubts;
‒ communicative - the constructiveness and effectiveness of contact interaction with people and environment, ability to gain, support and develop business and personal contacts.
Ultimately, the state of personality readiness is formed by means of many specific components - the phenomena, every one of which can be dominant, and then the given component will have an effect on quality features of the state derivative from the interaction of internal and external conditions of life.
The carrying out of students´ personality readiness main components diagnostics supposes that at the educational process organization the individual development features of students should be taken into consideration to the maximum. This is the motivation-conative relation to the academic activity; the success achievement and trouble avoidance motivation; the cognitive need and creative activity presence in getting knowledge and academic training level in the field of psychology; the ability to self-education, self-development, self-bringing-up processes on the basis of reflexive thinking, consciousness, understanding, rethinking of the process and results of own activity; the level of methodological and practical knowledge and skills, etc.
3. The creation of personal development situations at learning sessions immediately. The given condition supposes:
‒ a contact between the teacher and student through a dialog, which supposes the equality of psychological positions of the two interacting sides. The situation of double-sided interactions means an active role of all the sides involved into the communication. The dialogical interaction supposes:
‒ the education space retargeting to the personality sphere of students;
‒ a «game» form for creation of personality development situations with active use of interactive learning and control methods, change of role positions;
‒ the application of means and methods for learning motivation formation. The educational process is aimed at the formation of positive motivation in its reinforcement by means of activeness of the person itself;
‒ the application of problem educational methods in adoption of scientific knowledge system and results, the process of getting results, formation of cognitive independence and development of creativity of the student.
4. The education and culture of axiological potential development through one´s own activity. An individual develops in the process of its own activity. In the basis of the activity approach in education the personal inclusion of every student into the process lies, when the activity components are aimed and controlled by it.
The personality approach - is the inclusion of students into the educational process organization. The problem setting at a session, planning its solutions, further realization and evaluation of the implemented actions are fulfilled together with the teacher; the creation of conditions for the choice of session conduction forms.
5. The students´ reflexive skills development updating. The educational process efficiency depends to a large extent on how actual the students´ reflexive skills become (depth, latitude, complexity, verity). At pedagogical skills realization the reflexive actions of students become an integral component at every stage of their activity organization, that promotes the personality development and self-cognition process activation.
6. The readiness of the teacher to the learner-centered approach realization. The teacher´s personality readiness requires his psychological skills (communicative, organizational, gnostical, constructive) development realization:
‒ to draw attention to the activity subject or relations during the communication with educatees;
‒ to instrument the recognition of both the educatee and educator to differences in opinions, judgements, tastes, abilities - then the communication with children becomes interesting and spiritually rich;
‒ not to resort to direct and open appraisal of the educatee, to use the method
«I - information» when evaluating him, then the learner´s self-confidence consolidates and his activity and self-evaluation grow;
‒ to manifest the empathic understanding of the student, respect and kindness, to express sympathy to his life, feel with his success and misfortunes;
‒ to underline the unique character and soleness of his personal «I» - then the status and self-control of this educatee in the group grow.
7. The ratio of personality and situational factors in behaviour determination. The classical research of Hartshorn and May (1928) testified that human behaviour depends not only on stable personality traits, but also on situational conditions. However, can external conditions, besides internal ones, influence the behaviour, if one bears in mind the following important position of S.L. Rubinstein: external conditions act through internal ones ? How after all one can combine the oneness of personality traits and «external situations» in the personality theory (for example, in personality integration itself) still remains out of view of investigators. The uncertainty of this most important problem has found out both «personality traits» theory and situational personality theory to be invalid with all acuteness. Having arisen in psychology and not been solved yet, the dispute over the comparative role of different behaviour factors (and life as a whole) can be solved dialectically on the basis of a certain new personality theory considering the differentiating of situations in the process of individual personality structure development. Such a theory should be built at a higher consistency level and include into the personality integration not only personality traits, but also the variables of situations in their relation with these traits.
The comparison and a more detailed further analysis of the given signs allow drawing a certain way of the personality theory and the corresponding psychognostic supply perspective development.
8. One of the realization conditions of the learner-centered education in a higher institution can be the organization of psychological preparation of students and teachers.
As the principle directions of the preparation to the activity of teachers and students in a higher establishment the methods of psychoprofylaxis, psychognosis, psychocorrection, psychological consultation, psychological enlightenment and other methods should be considered and realized. The generalization of psychological and professional counseling experience through a dialog, for example; holding of objective-reflexive trainings and interdepartment scientific-methods seminars; rendering individual counseling assistance to the student are of positive value. The fact is that the prevailing at a higher establishment group session forms including group games and trainings, etc. are more applicable for brainwork training and not for intimate personality sides´ development. That is why the student´s personal contact with a qualified specialist psychologist-pedagogue can be an indispensable means of the student´s individual support, if he himself is in want of such a support and has realized that.
9. An important condition for the personality self-development is control and self-control, which represents the feedback in the personality development. The effective personality diagnostics should rest on the information about the personality manifestations not in a certain, comparatively narrow, kind of activity, but in life as a whole, i.e. bear a system-style character (see above about the corresponding principle).
A creative interest to the teacher´s professional activity personality readiness investigation testifies to the given problem topicality. Together with that the certain professional activities personality readiness components, inclusive of the concurrent activity of subject-psychologist, remain insufficiently studied. The method of the selective formation of the future subject-teachers´ psychological readiness for their practical activity as early as in conditions of higher establishment training requires renovation.
Currently, the diagnostics problem, the development of the personal readiness state criteria, means and methods, that is necessary both for the creation of a theory and practical purposes - the control and readiness control, the forecasting, projecting of valuation in problem solving, the professional selection, special psychological training, the activity efficiency and success and psychic health provision, still remain not less important.
All this set of problems needs further efforts for their settlement.
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- Rubinstein S.L. Principles of General Psychology. - M.: 1946. - 574 p.