The Russian language has already been made the great influence upon the Abazin language vocabulary and the word stock. So, the Russian language influence upon the Abazin language, as well upon the Northern Caucasus other languages has been beginning, as far back as, in the beginning of the XIX-th century, just after the Northern Caucasus annexation to Russia.
The toponymy, the social and the political vocabulary the word stock, and the terminology, having named the cities and the towns, the countries and the nations, the old Russian Army military ranks, the estate ranks, the Administrative Management members occupations, the law or legal terms, and the clerical and the office terms have been beginning to be entered through the highland aristocracy into the Abazin language, for example: Russia, Kharkov, England, the Siberia, an officer, an ataman, a soldier, a general, a colonel, a dragoon, a prince, a merchant, a count or an earl, a police, a landowner, a Cossack, an envelope, a hard labor, a mail, and etc.
The commonly used vocabulary, the material and the household vocabulary, and the word stock, having connected with the living quarters and with the habitation, with the buildings, with the building materials, with the household stuff and with the housewares, with the dishes, and with the tableware, with the furniture, with the clothes and with the belongings, with the footwear, with the food, with the drinks and with the beverages, with the agricultural and the farming cultures, with the commercial and the trade vocabulary, the trade word stock, and with the terminology, with the instruments of labor or with the working tools, with the cloth and with the fabrics, with the measurement units has already been entered into the Abazin language from the Russian language or through its direct mediation in the pre - October revolutionary period, for example: a cornice, the rafters, a stove, a table, a glass, a sweet or a candy, a plant or a factory, the oats, a dozen, a weight, the reins or the ribbons, a pillow, a coach or a car, a machinegun cart, a pound, a sazhen or a sajene or a fathom, a copeck, a jam or the preserves, a spice cake or a treacle cake, a teapot or a kettle, a box or a case, and etc.
A great number of the social and the political words and the terms, having called the socialst rebuilding and the reconstruction lives phenomena, such as: a revolution, a Party, the Institute, the Council, the system, a club, a newspaper, the elections, the kolkhoz or the collective farm, the sovkhoz, or the state farm, a tax, a member of a shock brigade team, or a shock - worker, or a record - setter in the work productivity, a lecture or a report, a revision or an inspection, or an audit, a link or a section, a milker or a dairymaid, or a milkmaid and the others.
At the same time, more, than 11% of the Abazin language vocabulary and the word stock are being made up the borrowings from the Russian language.
Thus, the borrowed vocabulary and the word stock are quite possible to be divided into the two large groups:
1) the inkhorn words and the terms (e.g. more, than 55% of the borrowed words);
2) the commonly used words, having apprehensible to all the native speakers of the given language (e.g. 45% of the borrowings).
On the whole, the inkhorn words and the international vocabulary, and the word stock have already been borrowed after the 20-es years of the XX- th century, and they, moreover, are being portrayed and the most popular in the specialists and the experts intellectuals speech one or another branch or the young people, having good mastered of the Russian language. Therefore, very little the words have been successfully subjected to the next phonetic, the lexico-semantic, and the following grammatical changes, on the whole, they are being written, and they are also being pronounced, equally and identically, as in the Abazin language, well as in the Russian language. So, the borrowed words another group has firmly been entered into the Abazin language, as well in all the Northern Caucasian languages, and, that is why, it is being made up the commonly used vocabulary, the word stock, and also the current vocabulary, and the word stock in the general use. So, the Abazin people are practically using by all these words in their everyday speech.
Thus, they have been subjecting by the phonetic, the lexico-semantic and also the grammatical changes, which are being conditioned by the Abazin language specific peculiarities and the special features during their step-by-step and the gradual adaptation.
In the end, it has been succeeded to be cleared out, that the borrowed words phonetic adaptation and their following assimilation are being taken their place just in the both directions, on the basis of the bilingualism different and the various types´ analysis:
1. The borrowed words in the Abazin language from the Russian language are being lost its, as the sounds, well as the sound combinations, which are quite not character and the typical ones for the borrowing language, that is, the Russian words are being adapted just to the Abazin language phonetic and the syntactical laws, which are the following: a decoration [e.g. decoratza], gills [e.g. zhabra], a meeting [e.g. zasedana], an art [e.g. iskustva], a kalatch (a kind of the fancy loaf) [e.g. kIalach], a cabbage [e.g. kIambysta], a trap [e.g. kyapgIan], a brick [e.g. kyrbydzh].
2. The Russian words, having penetrated into the Abazin language in their distorted and the corrupt forms, are being begun, more and more, to be approached to the pronunciation, which is quite character and the typical one, especially, for the source and the well language. The earlier borrowings pronunciation, having penetrated through the oral speech in their distorted and the corrupt forms, is being begun to be changed, having approached to the Russian language orthoepic standards. So, such words new pronunciation, practically, is more character and more typically for the young people. For example: an officer [affisar] - [affitzer].
Thus, the borrowed words phonetic mastering is completely being depended on the contact languages systems specific character and the sound systems originality and the peculiarity, and also on the bilingualism development level just in the defined and the specified region.
It is necessary to be differentiated the double pronunciation together with such kinds of the changes: 1) the borrowed words are being sounded, in accordance with Russian orthoepy standards, in the young generation speech, having well mastered by the Russian language; 2) the sounds, having, absolutely, absented in the Abazin language, the elderly generation and the senior people, automatically, are being changed by the near to them by the native language sounds acoustic - articulatorily indications.
The Russian language is being had its defined and the specified influence also on the Abazin language grammatical structure and its system. That is why, the grammatical mastering their own rules are quite character and the typical ones for every part of the speech. So, the Abazin language is, constantly, being enriched not only by the separate words borrowings, but and by their words and the phrase combinations: a big industry - promyshlennost du; a new bycicle - velosiped shIytz and the others.
So, the quite new words are, constantly, being formed, by means of the Abazin language affixes from the considerable number of the borrowed words, for example: from a word sport - sportivna, a sportsman, a sport hall; a box - a boxer, aboxerkIa - the boxers, boxerska - boxing, boxerzlara - to be a boxer.
So, the considerable semantic changes are, constantly, being taken their part just in the separate borrowings, in comparison with their meanings in the source - language. On the whole, they are being come to the meanings circle narrowing that is the borrowed word is, constantly, being lost one or the several meanings. Thus, only one meaning is, constantly, being borrowed in the overwhelming majority cases, for example: a sister or a baby - sitter in the meaning of «the medical nurse», a blade in the meaning of «the safety razor blade», the Council in the meaning of «the State power body» and the others.
So, the separate borrowings meanings are quite able to be broadened and also to be become wider, that is, one or another several new meanings are, constantly, being appeared, for example: a degree:
1) the corner measuring unit;
2) the alcoholic beverages, the wine measuring unit;
3) the temperature;
4) the thermometer, the temperature indicator. The fourth meaning is the quite additional one.
So, the Russian language influence upon the Abazin language is so much efficiently and productively, that many earlier borrowings from the Oriental languages, having firmly entered into the local languages, and, having existed in them during several centuries, are, constantly, being supplanted by the Russian borrowings. This should be considered the natural phenomenon, as the Russian words are more come to for the corresponding notions expression. The Arabisms and the Turkisms part, which are quite a lot of in the Abazin language, have already been supplanted by the Russian borrowings after the literary languages formation.
Thus, it is quite possible to make a conclusion from the above - mentioned material, that the Abazin language has already been borrowed a great deal of the words from the Russian language, ipso facto, it has already been enlarged its own vocabulary and the word stock by the words, which have not the necessary translation and the interpretation in this language.
Recently, all these borrowings have already been emerged from the narrow confines of the domestic sphere and the household sector, and, that is why, the Russian words have already begun to be enriched and to be enlarged the national language in all the spheres of the vocabulary and the word stock, and also the phraseology.
- The Abazin - Russian Dictionary / Under the editorship of V.B. Tugov, M., 1967;
- Shishkanova A.V., "The Caucasus Peoples´ Cultural Diaspora: Genesis, Study Challenges". Cherkessk: The Karachay - Cherkessk History, Philology and Economy Research Institute,1993, p.p. 390-408.
The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Prospects for the development of university science», (Sochi), 22-25 September 2010, came to the editorial office on 24.06.2010.