Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPORT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES AT THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Kazarin B.V.
The analysis of almost twenty years’ period of job of educational institution with 50-year-old traditions of job on training of foreign citizens during rather drama period of development of the Russian Federation - in transition from a planned economy to economy market is carried out. Pricing process at training of foreign pupils and its interrelation with process of formation of a contingent of foreign pupils in an educational institution of the higher vocational training is studied. The received materials have allowed to estimate market behaviour of educational institution in the conditions of the competitive environment and to estimate efficiency of its activity on export of educational services and a role of this kind of job of high school in maintenance of its economic stability.

Nowadays the more and more currency is gain by the problem of widening the export of educational services of Russian higher school as a real contribution to the modernization component of economy.

With it, in the opinion of A.V.Rozhdestvenski, "...one of the global aims of internationalization of higher education provides for getting an income. At its frames the educational services are supposed at the fully paid base without concession of state subsidies. Foreign students give an opportunity of attraction of extra sources of financing, and thereby they stimulate universities to realize enterprise strategy at the international educational market [5]".

This work correspond itself further development of published earlier works [1, 2] about pricing at the HEI (at the example of Kuban state medical institute - academy - university), and concerns more long period of observing - from 1991 till 2009 year.

As one see from the table 1, the approaches to the pricing at the Kuban state medical university during the period from 1990 year and up to present changed specifically. The initial price of education of foreign citizens in our university there was found a price of 1000 of dollars in a year for one student.


Table 1

The base price of education of foreign students in Kuban state medical university
(earlier institute - academy) and some peculiarities of enrolment

Number

Year
of enrolment

Base price
(of US
dollars)

Peculiarities of enrolment

1

2

3

4

1

1990

1000

No

2

1991

1300

No

3

1992

1300

Dispersion of prices: 800 $ in a year /Rosintermed/; 945 $ in a year for the citizens of India, Pakistan; tenth "bonus" contract for mediators; specially favourable price 1090 $ for the company MBSU + firstly introduced discount for the cancellation of dormitory

4

1993

1500

Dispersion of prices: 1090 $ for the company MBSU; tenth "bonus" contract for all mediators; the number of special prices 1395-1360 $ for some mediators

The table 1 termination

Number

Year
of enrolment

Base price
(of US
dollars)

Peculiarities of enrolment

5

1994

1600

Tenth "bonus" contract for all mediators

6

1995

1700

Tenth "bonus" contract for all mediators

7

1996

1700

Full denial of the discounts to the mediators

8

1997

1700

The same

9

1998

1965

The same + cancellation of discounts for the cancellation of dormitory, separation of living at the dormitory to the independent price, which is added to the price of education

10

1999

1800

The same + separation of living at the dormitory to the independent price

11

2000

1600

The same + separation of living at the dormitory to the independent price

12

2001

1600

Without changes, imposition of 10% of payment of services of mediators

13

2002

1600

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

14

2003

1600

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

15

2004

1715,54

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

16

2005

1808,31

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

17

2006

2088,02

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

18

2007

2473,94

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

19

2008

2736,81

Without changes, use of 10% of payment of services of mediators

20

2009

2312,42

The cancellation of settling with mediators, concession of a right to independently levy sums from the student

21

2010

3172,14

The cancellation of settling with mediators, concession of a right to independently levy sums from the student, liquidation of some discounts


An aspiration for increase of the contingent of contractual foreign students makes the HEI to widen the network of mediatory structures, which work by the enrolment of foreign citizens for studying at the commercial base, simultaneously with it such discounts as the discount for the cancellation of dormitory and "bonus" contract (per se "barter" settling for the services of mediator in percents) become being permanent. Al this allowed in 1993 year to get under way of increase of price of education.

1993-1995 years side by side with unification of discounts for mediators and their decrease, are characterized by the increase of the price of education. Starting from 1996 year, the university fully renounces the discounts for mediatory structures. There become effective the principle: "the mediator is independently levies pay that is due to him, in the excess of the sum that is due to HEI, and the HEI doesn´t meddle in the financial relations between the student and mediator" [3].

At the table 2 there are represented facts, which characterize annual resumes of enrolment of contract foreign students in 1990-2009 years.

The facts at the table 2 are represented in a form of relative quantities, and at the columns 2, 3 and 4 the results of enrolment in 1998 year are taken in the form of 100 percents, and a column 5 is calculated with regard to the contingent in corresponding to the school year.


Table 2

Some resumes of enrolment of foreign student to the first course
(1990-2009 years) at the base of contracts

School
year

The number of students, which were admitted to the first course in % to the enrolment of 1998 year

Real price
of one contract
at the first
course in %
to the 1998 year

General sum that was received
by the contracts
of first course in %
to the 1998 year

Specific weight of contract students among the first-year-students (in % to all number of first-year-
students)

1

2

3

4

5

1990/1991

4,11

61,02

2,51

3,00

1991/1992

31,51

83,84

26,42

40,00

1992/1993

205,48

74,22

152,50

69,00

1993/1994

378,08

67,40

254,81

98,35

1994/1995

212,33

86,58

183,84

97,44

1995/1996

219,18

85,51

187,41

96,99

1996/1997

180,82

99,22

179,41

95,18

1997/1998

156,16

97,42

152,13

98,00

1998/1999

100,00

100,00

100,00

94,83

1999/2000

106,90

98,44

84,76

98,39

2000/2001

106,90

83,16

71,59

96,77

2001/2002

91,38

85,39

62,84

90,57

2002/2003

143,10

80,85

93,17

90,36

2003/2004

110,34

92,03

88,86

92,19

2004/2005

144,83

106,46

114,23

88,10

2005/2006

136,21

128,49

98,08

86,08

2006/2007

139,66

135,15

96,52

85,19

2007/2008

208,62

151,79

153,70

90,91

2008/2009

134,48

116,88

103,86

82,05


As one see from the given facts, starting from 1990 and till 1992 year there is observed "explosive" increase of enrolment of contract foreign students, and to the 1993/94 school year there is due the maximal number of students, which were admitted to the first course of academy, in the 1994 year the enrolment decreases to the indicators of 1992 year and remains rather stable till 1996 year, when there begins the decrease of this quantity that strengthens to the 1998 and further years.

The real price (in contrast to base price is the actual price of contract after the extension of discounts) of one contract, which was concluded with foreign students that were admitted to the first course slowly, except the leap in the 1991 year, increases. During nine years it grew approximately in 1,6 times, reached in 1998 year some minimum, then decreased, and from the 2004 year continued to grow again.

Other character has the change of general sum that was received by HEI by the contracts, which were concluded with first-year-students. From 1990 till 1994 year this sum increases, reaching in the 1998 year the intermediate quantity between 1991 and 1992 years. In following period (1999-2004) the takings of means decreased, and only from the enrolment of 2004 there are observed the increase of this indicator.

The facts, which were given in the table 3, characterize the dynamic of changes of all contingent of contract foreign students of Kuban state medical academy and connected with this some economic indicators in 1990-2009 years. By its composition it´s analogous to the table 3. At the columns 2, 3, and 4 there given the facts relatively to their quantity in 1998 year, which is taken the form of 100 percents. From the table 3 one see, that the contingent of contract foreign students of academy, starting from 1990 and till 1997 year increases, from the 1994 the rate of increase decreases, in 1998 year there is observed the decrease of number of contract foreign students, and this decrease continues in the period after default.


Table 3

The contingent of foreign students of contract education
in 1990-2009 years and some financial indicators

School year

The number of students, which are taught at the
academy, in % to the general number of them in 1998 year

Actual price of one
contract by academy
in general in %
to the 1998 year

The sum that was received
by contracts
by academy in general in % to the 1998 year.

1

2

3

4

1990/1991

0,46

70,13

0,32

1991/1992

3,98

96,97

3,85

1992/1993

36,54

85,64

31,3

1993/1994

73,85

77,15

56,98

1994/1995

72,78

93,2

67,83

1995/1996

88,53

91,23

80,76

1996/1997

111,93

94,66

105,95

1997/1998

118,96

93,97

111,78

1998/1999

100

100

100

1999/2000

88,30

100,05

88,34

2000/2001

83,33

90,68

75,53

2001/2002

70,51

96,87

68,27

2002/2003

64,26

91,11

58,52

2003/2004

61,38

92,28

52,80

2004/2005

62,98

102,46

57,07

2005/2006

62,50

140,32

87,66

2006/2007

61,54

142,81

87,84

2007/2008

63,46

158,53

100,55

2008/2009

62,82

135,12

84,84


Thereby, comparing the facts of tables 1, 2, and 3 one can conclude that the increase of the cost of education of contract foreign students in Kuban medical academy and the liquidation of discounts for mediatory structures leaded to the negative changes of indicators of enrolment of corresponding school year and all contingent of contract students in general. While this the decrease of indicators was found as slow and began to improve only in 2004-2007 years, but the liquidation of discounts for the mediators in 2008/2009 and following years leaded to the decrease of number of foreign students of HEI again.

The diagram 1 clearly illustrates the connection between the number of contract foreign students, which are annually admitted to the academy, and real cost of education for the corresponding year. There attracts out attention the opposite dependence between these quantities.

Represented in this work facts, which characterize the price policy of Kuban state medical university, show that sharp changes at the sphere of pricing, for the reason of which there was carried out an enrolment, can lead not only to decrease of the number of first-year-students, but also of the all contingent of foreign students. The essential part while this is acted by stability of contractual obligations between the HEI and mediatory structure, which does the recruiting of foreign students.

p

The questioning of students showed that many of them as the negative moment call instability of cost of the contract, which is noted not only as a change of the price of enrolment but also as introduced right of the HEI to index the cost of education unilaterally. This is confirmed in the work of S.M.Smolski [4] from the rather successful Moscow energy institute, at which there is stated the situation of "special importance of saving the base price during the number of years, what promotes the improvement of marketing situation for the HEI".

References

  1. Kazarin B.V. The teaching of foreign citizens at the commercial base. - Krasnodar, 1993. - 82 p.
  2. Kazarin B.V. Questions of pricing while the studying of contract foreign students // Kuban scientific medical herald. - 1999. - № 11. - P. 20-25.
  3. Exemplary contract by the activity of selection, direction and education of foreign citizens // Informative reference materials by the questions of education of foreign citizens in Russian Federation. Goskomvus of RF. - M., 1996. - P. 98-102.
  4. Smolski S.M. The experience of Moscow energy institute by the forming of contract price for the education of foreign students and by the distribution of means inside the HEI // Educational services of Russian higher school. Marketing. New forms. - M., 1995. - P. 23-25.
  5. Rozhdestvenski A.V. The internationalization of Russian system of higher professional education: problems and perspectives // The conference-seminar of pro-rectors by the international activity of higher educational institutions of Russian Federation. - M., 2009.