Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,372


Pogozheva O.V.

Today, the changes processes in the society, as, on the whole, well as in the educational system, in particular, having connected with the new humanistic educational paradigm introduction, are being put just on the agenda the new educational system formation challenge, having orientated upon the entering into the world - wide informationally - educational space. The developing society educational needs satisfaction is being entailed with the population teaching system reorganization necessity. So, the distance teaching is one of such reorganization forms. The distance teaching is being become just not so much the information exchange means among the people throughout the whole duration of their vital functions and their activities, as it is being suggested, as the knowledge man mastering organization, well as the return his to them, in exchange for the received ones.

It is necessary to note, that the information transfer optimization methods, having developed in the framework of the distance teaching system, today, often, they are, mechanically, used in the traditional educational process scheme, without its re-comprehension and the reconstruction. In this connection, only the systemic presentation on the place and the realization ways of the specific (in this case, the distance teaching technology) educational technology, having supported by the corresponding programmatically - methodological provision and the teachers´ occupational qualification, in essence, is able to be influence upon the teaching process quality in the academic disciplines teaching of the juristical cycle.

Today, the distance teaching is, intensively, being entered into the educational sphere, that it is able to be explained by the whole number of the advantages of this pedagogical system. Now, we shall consider the essence of the distance teaching (DT) specific character, having noted, in the beginning, that under it, it is comprehended the whole educational services complex, having provided to the broad strata of the population, with the help of the specialized educationally - informational surroundings at the every distance from the educational institutions. Under the educationally - informational surroundings of the distance teaching, they comprehend the systemically organized whole complex of the data transmission facilities (DTF), the informational resources, the interfacing protocols, the hardware and the methodologically - organizing provision, having orientated upon the uses´ educational needs satisfaction.

As the distance teaching (DT) specific characters, they have singled out the following.

The Flexibility. The students are working at the convenient time for them, in the comfortable position, and also in the comfortable rate.

The Modularity. The every separate course is created the whole presentation on the specific subject field.

The Economic Efficiency. It is, practically, reached by means of the use more concentrated presentation and the content unification, the DT directivity for the more number of the students, and also the more efficient existing school areas and the technical facilities use.

The Teacher´s New Role. Such functions, as the cognitive process coordination, the teaching course correction, the educational projects guidance, the educational groups of the mutual support direction, the help to the students in their occupational self - determination are charged with the teacher.

The Specialized Educational Quality Control. The distantly - organized examinations, the interviews, the practical, the yearly projects and the design works, the computer intelleсtual testing systems are used, as the control forms in the DT. The DOT are able to be used, first of all, for the students´ independent controlled activity organization at the full - time tuition and the tuition forms by the correspondence.

The students´ cognitive activity control system, at the distance educational technologies use, must be realized the regularities and conformities, having underlain the teaching process organization.

In this connection, we shall note, in the first place, that the specific character of the teaching regularities and the conformities, having presented by itself the objective and subjective factors complex conditionality, is told on the special meaningfulness of the teaching principles, as the specific regulations, having expressed the study process development dialectics, and also the interactions of its existing systems. In the actual fact, but namely, the principles are defined the teaching practice in two ways. On the one hand, having orientated upon them, it is quite possible to be based in the each specific case, all the necessary control actions upon the student´s cognitive activity. On the other hand, having orientated upon the didactic principles, it is quite possible to estimate the quality one or another teaching conception.

For the purpose of the distance teaching systems introduction into the teaching process of the faculty of law of the Stavropol State University, the part of the students´ independent controlled activity (ICA) by the general occupational academic disciplines the specialty 030501 - «The Science of Law» at the full - time form tuition is being transferred to the distance form, that not is changed, but only it is added the traditional ICA conducting forms. The ICA conducting advantages with the distance educational technologies usage is being consisted in the flexible connection the teacher - the student - the University, just from the positions of the time and the space (Modus (Moodle) is quite permitted the students to carry out the ICA just at the convenient time and in the comfortable position, having provided, for all this, the teacher´s control for the student of law learning activity final results).

The teachers, having intended for the teaching control and, who are responsible for these courses, are especially the teachers, who conduct the seminar activities in the groups.

The distance educational technologies usage just in the teaching process of the department of law is allowed to verify the teachers´ and the students´ instructional work, to simplify the digital educational resources usage, including, which have already been placed in the Internet network, to make more flexible the teacher - the student - the University connection, efficiently, to carry out the teachers´ and the students´ learning activity monitoring.

The distance educational technologies are being used, as in the distance teaching system, well as by way of the technology at the full - time tuition form.

The domestic psychologists, having revealed and described the knowledge mastering psychological mechanisms, proceed from the fact, that the thinking is not simply being induced, but and it is being formed by the activity, and the mental and the intellectual activities methods - are the common thinking operations, having concretized on the specific didactic material.

Hence, the teacher´s main task is being consisted in, that to form the mental and the intellectual activities methods through their content by the students´ mastering, the training in the independent use and also their transfer into the new situations during the teaching.

The teaching on the interiorization is being served the thinking formation basis in the in the teaching process for the domestic psychologists. In terms of this teaching, the thinking is presented itself the practical actions over the objects, having transferred into the ideal plan and having performed, as the mental and the intellectual activities over these objects´ imageries, having reflected their real relations.

The mental and the intellectual activities systems realization (e.g. the operational thinking structures), as it has already been shown by the series of the investigations, is, directly, depended on the cognitive tasks type, during the solution of which the teaching is being conducted.

If, for example, the student is being set before the necessity independently to discover the objects´ qualities and indications during the activities with them, to apply the corresponding notions and the conceptions to them, and to decide some practical tasks with their help at the teaching, then, in this case, the analysis and the synthesis are underlain of the mental and the intellectual activities. As far as, all these operations are being produced in the ideal plan, then they are able to be carried out at the various levels of the generality: over the objects themselves, over their qualities and indications, over their relations and so on, and so forth. So, it is quite permitted to be seen just the very various sides and the diverse qualities of the studied objects at the analysis, but at the synthesis - to be correlated and to be compared them at the different levels. The analysis of that, how it should be carried out all these operations, concerning to the defined objects´ and specific tasks´ classes enough completely has been given in a number of papers.

If rather the knowledge mastering is being on through the message, the learning, and the general rules usage at the teaching, then, in this case, the mental and the intellectual activities basis is the general rule connection with the studied objects. All these connections (e.g. the generalized associations), their role, and the types have already been shown in many papers, in details. Also it has been proved, that it is quite possible to be formed the associative mechanisms not only during the routine tasks solution by the students, but also and in the searching process of the quite unknown solution methods, in the course of the initial data analysis and the synthesis and so on, and so forth.

When in teaching process, the knowledge mastering is being organized by means of the reality relations bringing under ones or anothers categories or the logical structures, then, in this case, in the mental and the intellectual activities basis are being lain the categorization and the systematization processes. So, the general invariant relations are being singled out just in the studied objects, by means of the categorization; the classification, the regulating, the removal (e.g. the implication), the studied objects existing qualities and indications inclusion and exclusion are being carried out by means of the systematization. In other words, the dominance - submission relations or the collateral subordination relations, the converse or the compatibility ones are being formed just between the studied objects or their qualities by means of the operations, having underlain of the categorization and the systematization.

The distance teaching peculiarities are being demanded, separately, to be noted the functional role just in the educational and cognitive activities organization of the technical facilities. For its characteristic, we shall note the following. In the specialists´ and experts´ in didactics opinion, the technical facilities will have to be created the necessary possibilities for the direct observation for the objects and the phenomena, thus, having made «to work» the large number of the students´ perception organs, having exerted the defined and the specific emotional impact on them.

Having provided the students´ figurative knowledge side, at the same time, the technical facilities will have to be provided their indirect cognition organization, to the transition from the concrete thinking to the abstract one, and its further formation on the basis of the scientific thinking methods. So, in this connection, the technical facilities will have to be provided the existing indications of the studied objects and phenomena reflection and to be given the necessary material to the pupils just for their analysis, synthesis, generalization, and also the abstraction.

The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Modern education. Problems and solutions», Thailand, December 20-30, 2009. Came to the editorial office on 02.10.2009.