Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,372


Nekhvyadovich L.I.

In the history of art the term "art school" has a multilevel content and by its help integration and originality are always stressed. The term is used toward the art of the country; the art of geographical area or city, in case it is marked by originality of features within definite chronological lines; toward the group of congenial painters; the group of apprentices and followers of a master.

Historically formed is a type classification of art schools. The classification takes into account specific peculiarities of art forms and genres. On the basis of this classification landscape school as an art unity is a kind of painting school with specific peculiarities of landscape as a genre. Depending on its localization in time and space a landscape school is systematized according to chronological, territorial and geographical principals. This way a landscape school is a part of territorial culture-natural complexes. According toYu. A. Vedenin, territoriality comes out "...through territorial selectability and regional specificity of art, through location of production sites and made art works" [1].

The peculiarity of landscape school is determined by native environment (natural and social), stability of landscape traditions in art, appearance of group of painters with educated sense of nature and solidary in thematic, stylistic and technical plans and, finally, by the influence of talented masters from another national and regional schools. The way of appearance of a landscape school begins with assignment of a group of painters in natural, social, economic and cultural environment, which are congenial in their art positions; and with creation of art works similar on a number of counts. According to M.S. Kagan, this is a period of demonstration of individuality and peculiarity in mastering of reality [2]. The criterion of creative individuality and singularity is originality (lat. originalis - original, primary), seen as "... originality, singularity of aesthetic object and subject, reflected in fertility of content and form, valuation and critical interpretation of art works" [3]. The second period in the development of landscape school can be characterized by the appearance of general stable signs in formal structure of landscape painting art works. A complex of peculiarities in elements of form (composition, coloration, texture) is interpreted in art criticism as a manner (fr. maniere - way, method).

Researching the specificity of development of landscape school Prof. T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Fine Arts, points out its six main signs: presence of general motives; stability of compositional plans; general character of tonal developing; general character of texture developing; mastering of general motives in aquarelle, painting, lithography, linocut e.t.c.; general role of landscape in narrative painting.

The third, final period of development of a landscape school supposes the presence of general stable signs not only in formal but also in image structure of landscape painting works. According to native research tradition it makes sense to use the category of style (lat. stylos - a pointed instrument for writing upon wax tablets), defined as "... a stable unity of art image system, art means of expression" [5]. The image structure and form show the principals of practical fulfillment. Generally accepted in art criticism is the term of art method (gr. methodos - way of research, theory).

In conclusion, the following definition of landscape school can be given:

Landscape school is a kind of painting school, which is notable for specific peculiarities of landscape as a genre. As an art unity, determined by objective and subjective factors, it is connected with the integration of thematic, formal and content plans. It is important to underline, that a landscape school has own specific method and style. As a category of art-historical process, landscape school localized in time in space (according to chronological, territorial, geographical principals) is a part of territorial culture- natural complexes, and it is reflected in national and regional art.

The research work is provided by financial help of Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fond and scientific research project "Russian art tradition of Siberia (the end of the XXth- the beginning of XXIth centuries)", project08-04-60-401 а/т


  1. Vedenin Yu. A. Essay on art geography. - St. Petersburg: Dm. Bulanin, 1997. - p. 23.
  2. Kagan M.S. Aesthetics as philosophic science. Course of lectures. - St. Petersburg: Petropolis, 1997. - p. 439.
  3. Originality // Aesthetics. Dictionary/ed. A.A. Belyaeva. - Moscow: Politizdat, 1989. - p. 243.
  4. Stepanskaya T.M. Exposition. Types of exposition // Art criticism. Study guide for bachelors of art (521800). - Barnaul: Altai State University, 1998. - p.29.
  5. Style // Apollo. Visual and decorative art. Architecture. Terminological dictionary / ed. A.M. Kantor. - Moscow: Ellis Lak, 1997. - p. 582.
  6. School // Apollo. Visual and decorative art. Architecture. Terminological dictionary / ed. A.M. Kantor. - Moscow: Ellis Lak, 1997. - p. 691.

The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Present-day problems of science and education», Russia, (Moscow), May 13-15, 2009. Came to the editorial office on 06.07.2009.