Language is a system of objective, socially fixed signs which coordinate the notion and typical sound, system of rules how to apply and combine them. That´s why the perfect mature language personality may be considered an individual who possesses all these systems and is able to use these signs and rules in different communicative situations.
If the language is a means of communication, speech is a kind of communication, i.e. speech functionally "inserts" the language into the context of usage. The language manifests itself in speech and only through it performs its communicative function. Communication as an act of interaction of people is the most important mechanism of individual formation as a social, cultural personality. Being a social process, communication helps to form society in general, performing a living function in it.
Communication itself, because of its social psychological nature, is a complex, rich in content form of activity, because there are elements which really and potentially hamper the optimal level of functioning. The peculiarities of personality expression, the system of its relations, conditions and forms of communication, the level of language skills development and so on convert any communicative act into a difficult task, multifunctional activity. "To communicate fully, the person must possess the whole range of skills and abilities. He must, first, quickly and correctly orient himself under conditions of communication. He must, secondly, be able to plan his speech correctly. He must, then, find adequate means to express this content. At last he must be able to provide the reverse connection. If one of the links in the act is broken it will be ineffective" . Thus, communication as a final aim of interaction between people presupposes that mature language personalities should take part in communication. Personalities, who are able to choose adequate language means to transfer their ideas and realize them in their speech taking into account definite communicative tasks and conditions. In modern linguistic research the level of language knowledge is described with the help of such notions as language competence, levels of language personality development, communicative culture and communicative competence, types of speech competence.
It is supposed that a high level of language competence is represented in works of linguists, post graduated students, researches of philology, primary school teachers, teachers of Russian and Literature - people who are professionally trained not only for practical usage of language in communicative acts but for the analysis of their own actions, reflection about the language of fiction. The high language competence coordinates with such types of speech culture as colloquial, literal and elite.
Professional culture of a teacher presupposes understanding of life and professional aims and senses, self-analysis and self estimation as a language personality, analysis and estimation of pedagogical situations. So, a teacher as a language personality plays an important role in subject-subject educational dialog "teacher - student". Formation of cultural environment in a student group depends on the level of teacher´s communicative culture. So, teacher´s communicative culture is an obligatory part of pedagogical process, means and conditions of realization of all functions and kinds of professional activity.
The basis of communicative culture of a primary school teacher consists of many components:
- competence in expression of his thoughts (in writing and speaking)
- speech expressiveness
- mimicry and gesture competence
- the ability to orient himself in information, select the best content for teaching and upbringing of students
- the ability to realize and regulate speech behavior (either his own one or his interlocutors´) taking into account a concrete situation and aims
- the ability to improvise in order to influence the audience
- the ability to see and hear himself while communicating and estimate his own speech behavior critically
- the ability to understand the interlocutor´s originality and select the most expressive intonation, exact words, correct grammatical and stylistical combinability for the most effective influence on the listeners and so on.
Teacher´s professional culture includes understanding of life and professional aims and senses, self-analysis and self-estimation as a language personality, analysis and estimation of pedagogical situation. Formation of cultural environment in a student group depends on the level of teacher´s communicative culture level, that´s why language personality becomes a fact of professional culture.
- Leontyev A.A. Psychological problems of mass communication. M., 1974. - P. 33.
- Sokolova V.V. Culture of speech and culture of communication. M, 1995. - 192 p.
- Sirotinina O.B. The main criteria of good speech//Good Speech. Saratov, SGU, 2001. - P.16-29.
The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Basic and applied research. Education, economics and law», Italy (Rome, Florence), September, 6-13, 2009. Came to the editorial office on 17.08.2009.