Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972
ИФ РИНЦ = 0,301


Nurligenova Z.N.
The article examines the role of vocational education in training of qualified workers for the needs of the national economy in Central Kazakhstan in the 50s-60s of the 20th century. The author mentions a legal framework of the issue, focusing on the management and financing of the vocational education in Kazakhstan during that time. According to archive documents and historical sources, the number of vocational schools and their students grew in Central Kazakhstan. In addition, the author observes the main tendencies and conditions of the development and modernization of the vocational education in Kazakhstan.

Global economic, political and cultural integration is characterized by specialization, global migration of financial, human and industrial resources, standardization of economic and technological processes. Under these circumstances accelerated modernization in Kazakhstan, especially the manufacturing industry development and diversification of economy, are vitally important for the safety of the Kazakh society and independence of our young state. However, such interdependent goals as a fast transfer of our country into the top 50 competitive states of the world, strengthening Kazakhstan´s position as a full member and entry of domestic products with high share of added value on the international market [1], are impossible to achieve without a principal optimization of human resources. This includes a considerable growth of human capital in our country, which, according to the head of the State University - Higher School of Economy, prof. E.G. Yasin, is the only real resource of the post-soviet states today and in the nearest future [2].

Human capital, which includes individual and collective a) educational and professional level, b) ability to search, learn and produce information, c) positive motivation and working ethics, d) efficiency of working population and etc., is a strategic resource. It determines the effectiveness of other resources´ usage and the success of the total accelerated modernization of the national economy. It does not make any sense to let an employee work with complex equipment and control systems, if he is not qualified enough, careless at work, physically or psychologically not able to fulfill complicated and non-standard tasks in the full-of-information working environment. Understanding the fact, that the state, business and the Kazakh society in general need to pay attention to this vital issue, president of Kazakhstan, N.A. Nazarbaev has set a goal of create a system of modern education and professional retraining, lay the basis of «smart economy», use new technologies, ideas and approaches to development of innovative economy [3]. «Educational system should stop functioning separately from economy and society. It should provide the country with intellectual resources ... We need to develop regional training and retraining programs taking into account the demands of the regional and national labor markets» [4, p.4].

In this respect, a special attention is being paid to vocational education, which aims at training qualified workers for different industries. The first vocational school was established in Karaganda in the beginning of the 30s of the last century to satisfy the demand for qualified specialists. In the 50s, the system of the state labor reserves was focusing on training workers for specific industries such as transport, construction, agriculture, as well as improving the level of professional and general knowledge of students.

Vocational school № 2, Balkhash, Central Kazakhstan, which was established in 1941, played an important role in training workers during this time. As of 1 January, 1950, 203 students studied here, including 33 Kazakhs [5, p.113]. During its history, the school graduated over 5000 miners, metallurgists, turners and other workers [6, p.145]. In 1960, the school took the 1st place at the socialist competition among the educational institutions of the Republic.

During the time of the 5th five-year plan, schools for working youth took a considerable place in the educational system of the mining city. For example, in school year 1953-1954, there were 19 schools for working youth in Karaganda, and compared with 1946 the number of students increased more than 7 times. 20 evening schools in Karaganda numbered 4651 students in academic year 1958-1959; in academic year 1959-1960, 25 schools for working youth numbered about 5000 people [7, p.124], in academic year 1961-1962 there were 28 schools with 7456 students, and in academic year 1964-1965 the number of such educational institutions reached 34 (11012 students) [8, p.77].

From year to year, the number of evening schools grew across the Karaganda region. For example, in 1953, there were 30 schools for working youth in the region, which numbered 5195 students, and in 1958, 38 evening schools counted 7946 students [9, p.51-52].

It should be mentioned, that the quantitative growth of the educational offers for working youth was not even. As of 8 October, 1964, according to the Central Governmental Statistic Department of the Kazakh SSR, the number of students in city and rural evening schools slightly fell in the Karaganda region: 22846 people at the beginning of the academic year compared to 18601 at the end [10, p.59-60]. Nevertheless, evening schools solved the tasks they were aiming at. Many of them helped young working people to get a secondary education along with a profession. For example, school for working youth № 9 trained mining electrical fitters, chemical laboratory specialists, drivers.

In academic year 1954-55, especially in big industrial cities, the schools were becoming mor technical oriented. At this time, much more young people with secondary school certificates worked in the production. They were later trained to mining engineers directly on site. For example, in 1958, production facility «Karaganda Coal» trained 377 specialists ; in 1959 - 379 specialists, including 86 electric locomotive operators, 128 electrical fitters, 25 coal plough-machine drivers, 55 motor mechanics and yarder engineers, 43 mine lighters, 66 winding enginemen and etc. [9, p.51-52]

By the end of 1959, there were 33 vocational schools in the Karaganda region numbering 9480 people. Since their establishment till 1959, they trained more than 80000 qualified miners for the needs of the regional coal industry [9, p.58-59]. They also trained staff for construction and agriculture.

In July 1959, the state system of labor resources was transformed into the system of vocational education, which took over schools of factory training in 1960.

According to the law of "Further development of the national education in the USSR" issued 24 December, 1958, city, rural and evening vocational schools were established and accepted young people who had completed minimum eight years of school. Higher educational level let provide workers with better knowledge of modern technologies.

Two types of educational institutions were developed during this reform - city vocational school (CVS) with the duration of study 1-3 years and rural vocational school (RVS) with the duration of study 1-2 years. Besides, evening vocational schools were opened, where already working young people could upgrade their skills.

16 February, 1960 the Council of Ministers of Kazakhstan has issued resolutions «Improvement of education of working youth» and «Measures for improvement of living conditions of teachers in rural areas». The number of learning working youth has also increased thanks to resolution of the Council of Ministers of Kazakhstan «Reorganization of secondary schools into secondary specialized schools with vocational training» issued on 31 August, 1960.

In 1961, in order to improve the work of specialized secondary schools, the Ministry of higher and vocational education of the Kazakh SSR established 13 main vocational schools. The Karaganda Mining School was also listed among the main specialized secondary schools [11, p.58].

An important role in further development of higher and vocational education played the resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR № 615, issued 1 August, 1963 «Implementation of the Resolution, issued 9 May, 1963 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR, № 533 «Measures for further development of higher and vocational education and improvement of young specialists training». This document proposed to gradually increase the number of specialists with higher and vocational education, in order to meet the labor demand in the national industries. It was planned to increase the number of middle-level specialists rapidly. The system of vocational education in Karaganda solved this task with mixed success. For example, the CVS №107 numbered 280 students in the 2nd quarter of 1965 [12, p.59], and in the 4th quarter of the same year, the number of student increased till 302 [12, p.59]. In the 1st quarter of 1969, the school numbered 650 students [12, з.37], in the 4th quarter of the same year there were only 544 students [12, p.32]. In 1969, the number of students also reduced at RVS № 12: in the 1st quarter - 234 people, in the 3rd quarter - 158 people [13, p.72].

Due to the fast growing national economy it was necessary to teach enough professionals for the industry and agriculture as soon as possible. As of 1 January, 1967, more than 4500 vocational schools trained over 1,5 million of people, among them 48 vocational schools in the Karaganda region, including 36 city and 12 rural ones [14, p.81, 85]. At the same time 2 technical vocational schools for 520 students and a building school for 420 students were established in the region. It was planned to graduate 7987 people, in fact 8150 (102 %) young professionals received a full vocational education. Besides, according to agreements with state farms, evening courses at the schools attended 817 tractor operators, maintenance persons, drivers and other specialists.

In academic year 1969-1970, there were five vocational schools in the Karaganda region: three of them provided a 4-year education (CVSs № № 1, 2, 3) and two offered 3-year study programs (SVSs № № 15, 138). They numbered 2324 students and 219 teachers and on-the-job trainers [15, p.2, 5].

To sum up, in Central Kazakhstan, as well as the country in general, vocation education played an important role in providing the national economy with qualified workers in the 50s-60s of the 20th century.


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