The foundations for the diacrisis of the oncohematological diseases were layed down by the works of the A.A. Maksimov´s followers, the hematologists I. L. Chertkov and A. Ya. Fridenshtein. The 5th level of survivability of the patients with hemoblastosis is still low. There are initial changes of the karyotype among the variety of the chromosomal anomalies. Such changes are typical for the certain variants of leukosis and concern the disease process. The changes in structure, with oncogene, growth factor gene, cell receptors and other bioactive genes involved, attribute to the initial and specific changes of chromosomes. The transgenesis, gene activation and loss, which control the oncogene functioning in the normal genome, and also the new DNA sequences formed by the translocation, play a great role in the processes of the neoplastic mutation. While working we have found the following cytogenetic changes:
del(6)(q21); 45,XY(-3); der(17); 45,XY(-7); t(15;17)(q21;q22); t(9;22)(q34;q11); inv(16); t(11;19)(q23;p13); inv(8)(p11;q13);
the polyploid variants of cerebrum cells karyotype. There are also nonspecific or post primary aberrations, which can come cause of the neoplastic proliferation and represent the processes of cloned evolution of leukemia cells. The post primary changes are not unique. The same changes are described in the different neoformations. But such changes present in the karyotype of the patients and have influence on the course of the disease. In recent years the great attention was paid to the role of some genetic anomalies in the course of different forms of leukemia. The traditional cytogenetic methods and extremely sensitive anti-transcriptase polymerase reaction (RT-PCR) are widely used for finding out these anomalies. The first step was taken by us. We have defined such changes as:
These anomalies are not notable for the exact linearity and perfectly register FAB-variants, except for the acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, variant M3, when in 95 per cent of the cases are defined as t(15;17)(q22; q21)/PML/ RAR. The diagnostics of the chronic myeloleukemia and other chronic myelo-proliferative diseases and leukemoid reactions widely use the concept Philadelphia (Ph´) chromosome, formed by the translocation t(9; 22)(q34; q11) or hybrid gene BCR/ABL. The using of the cytogenetic and molecular and genetic analysis while collecting the data of immunophenotyping is the 3d level of the hemoblastosis diagnostic. We consider it to be used in the nearest future in order to solve difficult diagnostic problems and give a possibility to point out some nosologic forms and variants of the onco-hematological diseases, which are notable for the mechanisms of forming, clinical and hematological and prognostic features, and optimal methods of therapy.
The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference "Fundamental and Applied Research. Education, economics and law", Italy, Rimini, 2006, September 9-16; came to the editorial office on 03.08.06.