Language shall be exact, clear, and understandableas mode of communicationin accordance with its function. Moreover, because of expressive activity language is essential to anotherone (listener, reader, and spectator). Since language acts not only for expression of idea but is means, expressing emotions, feelings and will. An individual, living in any society, cannot be in oneposition;its internal feeling is fluctuated in case of perception of different information from the outside. One of methods ofthis floating internal feeling extraction is joint consumption of emotions and language. As a consequence, emotion is demonstrated at lexical, grammar and phoneticlevel in language.
Group of words, which affectfeelings of any individual, are calledexpressive lexicon. Determination of its phonetic, morphologic, lexical and syntactic means, that it is used as linguistic means, reflecting its self-assessment and attitude to speech content or to it as individual is considered actual. Objective of the work is division of expressive elements and emotional elements in language by means of analysis of emotional nature of statements of any individuals to Internet publishing.
Materials and methods of the research
Emotional lexicon is one of the most important means when people communicate with each otherin society. Group of words, called emotional words in linguistics, is essential during communication of people. Therefore they are reflected in spoken language and literary compositions.
Expressive words arewell used events in fiction. Expressive words are more distinguished in publicistic, speech styles. Application of wordswith expressiveand emotionalovertone is also essential. Capability to deliver emotions and expressivity is limited in publicistic works. Nevertheless publicist can clearly describe morality of heroic character, realia of social and political life. Therefore there is opportunity to create an authentic and artistic image in artistic publicistic work. Expressive approaches play key role in strengthening of expressivity and picturesqueness during expression of emotions, ideas. Emotional words are intended for expression of human feelings. Classification of application of linguistic mean, reflecting personal opinion and attitude of the reviewer to speech content or individual to which the word is addressed (addressee) is related to the research methods. Using thesemeans, the reviewer can demonstrate mental and emotional state. Emotion transfers the spoken word as emotional (sensual) expressive (affect)word.
Emotional (emotive-expressive) words as facets (aspect) of the word meaning became one of the topical issues of modern linguistics. For example, scientist B.K. Momynova told about expressive words that: “Figurative or artistic words, expressive words are linguistic categories, certifying stylistic play of each writer. There are a lot of expressive words in linguistic stock,which stipulate fiction style compared towords which are without expression or inexpressive”[1,12]. The researcher N.A. Lukyanovanoted that: “Expression and emotion are interrelated, against this background emotion originated based on expressive, explaining this with second one, expressivity isartistic device ofthe sentence, which are apparent on the basisof semantic properties of linguistic units” [2, 47].
V.N. Coller [3, 36] relates expression to functional, pragmatic category and speech level, andexpressivityto semantic category, related tolanguage level. Suchlimitation can be seen in “Dictionary of Linguistic Terms” of O.S. Akhmanova: “Expressivity is all expression ... Expression is prominent artistic property of the word, distinguished from common language and provides it with particular model and emotional coloring” [4, 524]. This category is classified as follows in encyclopaedical linguistic dictionary: “Expressiveness is semantic-stylistic set of symbols of linguistic unity, which is determined by property of linguistic act of communication as means of subjective accuracy speaking as regards content of speech or addressee of the word. Based on activation of expressive mean, combination and language interactions became expressive which can demonstrate mental state of the speaker” [5, 349].
Emotive and expressive words have common and distinguishing features. Particularly, their common features are emotions based on emotive and expressive. Distinguishing features are demonstrated, firstly, in their meaning: emotive words provide involvement, excitement, there is something artistic, expressive in expressive words. Secondly, linguistic level: if emotive words are linguistic element, denoting feelings, emotions, expressive words have accumulated type of semantic-stylistic features of linguistic units. Thirdly, linguistic activity: emotive words are variety of moods, feelings, human impact on being of truth, expressive words reflect private judgement and attitude to content of words of speaker or individual to whom this word was addressed by means of artistic linguistic means. Fourthly, linguistic means: emotional breadthis expressed throughprovided lexicon, and expressivitythrough all linguistic categories.
Research results and discussion
As you know, emotional lexicon in modern Kazakh linguistics is composed of emotional and expressive ones. Word “emotion” comes from French word emotion; from Latin emovere – amaze, excite. Emotional words are emotions based on feelings. Emotional words are indicative of the richest human feelings.
Expression appears not only during human speech, but in human nature during gestures, physical, facial movements and operation. Distinction between expressive elements and emotional elements in language is explained by the fact that their functionality is separate objective, regardless of their interrelation. Emotional idea and will are on the same level, and there are methods of their application in language. Expression can be perceived emotionally, as in case of expressive idea and will.
It is said in linguistic dictionary: “Emotionality – (Lat. Emovereamaze, excite); Fr. emotion-isdifferent mood, feeling, human impact on thesurrounding being. Emotional background lexiconis application of many meanings, such as love andrestraint, anxiety and joy, dishonourandhate, fear and bravery, faith and uncertainty, trouble, fright etcю [6, 238]. I.e. formedtype ofsemantic-stylisticfeatures of linguistic units. It is used as linguistic tool, reflecting personal judgement and attitude of speaker to content of the word or to individual (addressee) for whom it is intended. It has phonetic, morphological, lexical, syntactic means. Using these means, speaker can demonstrate mental, emotional state. There are feelings with emotions in emotion words. Feeling is mental process expressing and reflecting personal attitude to itself, to other people, surrounding objects and phenomena [7, 25].
Analyzing comments in the Internet, we tried to demonstrate that they are directlyrelated to human psychology and demonstrateimpact of mood on common language of speech. If feeling is general concept, emotion becomes moment during formation of feeling, the single concept. And emotions, feelings and will take part in expressivity in language. Will is human ability to manage its behavior consciously. Conscious human thinking is basis of expression. If emotions and feelings prevail in emotional words, a will prevails in expressive words togetherwith (emotionality and feeling).
Expressive overtoneis usually expressed in two aspects. Firstly, lexical meaning of the word, initially inclined to expression, and secondly, names and verbs which can have expressive overtone during application. But there is no expressive background in lexical meaning of the word. Each writer tries to use this type of fine art in order to improve linguistic culture of the work, creating a specific image. Application method of the expressive word directly depends not only on common knowledge of the author’s language, but also on exact selection according to its artistic purpose [8, 11]. Such expressive activity of speech is the most different in publicistic, conversational styles, especially in fiction. Classifying analyzed opinions, we divided into the following groups: lexical-semantic groups of emotional judgments, expressing physical, mental or emotional ability of individual, lexical-semantic groups of emotional judgments, used through social names, lexical-semantic groups of emotional judgments, expressing different behavioral will of individual.
About 150000 comments were analysed during the research. Each comment was assessed in three areas (in case of positive, negative and underestimate, omission). Reflection of classification features takes important place in classification of computer texts, opinions with regard to application, primarily according to their grammatical, lexical personality, on the basis of consistency absence in the group. It is necessary to emphasize that during the analytical work comments are different; most of them use many words which provide mood, internal root, feelings, i.e. emotions. Some comments can be used only in the root, without any additions, and also expressed in state in which the reviewer is. For example: “Wonderful!”, “Heh!”, “Oh, my God!”, “Annoyingly!”, there can be a lot of comments in empty position, and they reflectvarious mood of individual (pity, surprising, joy, offence, sorrow). I.e. due to prepositions, we can see that words have emotional meaning. Number of comments is about 752. Almost all of them are with banter, mockery. Therefore, we suppose that expressive overtone can be in the form of joke, humor, or in form of triumphantmeaning, depends on behavior, mood of individual.
In general, what words,which we pronounce, are emotional? Words,which can cause positive or negative reaction in soul of individual, can be called emotional during perception. For example, let’s consider one of the comments:”Whether this man looks at the Moon?”,”This one became absorbed in conversation”, “This is written perfectly, May Allah ennoble your honor!”, “Heh, it did not occur to me?”such commentsare upper limits of emotionality. In these sentences words”look at the Moon”, “become absorbed in conversation”, “ennoble honor”, “did not occur”, “Heh”and semantic phrases (according to semantic meaning oflinguistic units)have different impact. They are accepted with certain positive oradverse reaction. It is seen from the examples that expressive-emotional lexicon appeared in a number of different ways:
1) some words have emotional coloring without any additions. Forexample:dishonor, heh, wonderfully, ah, marvelously,etc.Forexample: – Wonderfully! Well said!, “Heh, will such day be?!”.
2) emotional words,which appeared morphologically, are formed by means of naughtiness, neglect, ignoration, reduction, and other additions. For example: My brother!,boy, my boy, Brother.Such words are met in several places, even if not so often. Moreover, representing concepts of emotional mood, they also represent mood of individual, view, good and bad relations. They impose additional overtone. We considered them,classifying into the following types: love, approval, arrogance, sympathy, naughtiness, confidence, boasting, surprising, adulation, distrust, accusation, hate, bullying, etc.
Moreover, expressive words are executed phonetically (voice rhythm, pause). Forexample: “Tisk-tisk, I think you want to disperse accumulated authority in a moment!”.
Exclamations and acknowledgements and damnation are emotional words according to their nature. For example: “Blindness, Magpie life, mankurstvo...”, ”total dominantleavings everywhere”there are expressive-emotional features of additional indirect nature inwords “Magpie life”, “mankurstvo”, “leavings”together withnominative features.Lexical meaning of words appeared by means of emotions can be faded. Their lexical meaning (interjectional word) is determined only in case of substantivisation or in combination of nouns, suffixes, causing verb. For example, “If bring up, thinking only aboutown fell, longing for vengeance willbetraytheir own, for own fell”, “...It seems to have understood central idea of the said…”Words, appearing by means of emotions, do not correspond togrammar principlein groupof words. This group of words, standing alone (in the root), cannot answer on any question, i.e. cannot ask questions to them, such as noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb, adverb. Syntactic principle of words grouping cannot be basis for words grouping by means of emotions.
There are number of words, expressing emotional attitude of speaker to subject or phenomenon,in modern Kazakh language, and also in any other languages. Such words are related to category of words in linguistic knowledge, to emotional lexicon, or words with emotional coloring. With the participation of proverbs, phraseological phrases, these judgements are used in various forms. In such comments as: “Probably this is changeable life”, “If fall, then fall from cliff”, “Who does not want to see, those does not notice a camel”, ”Rope will be alright with Dzhigit”etc.,expressive coloring is demonstrated from lexical meaning.
Expressive words are formed from primary word and by means of application of words in variable meaning. If words are divided from primary objective meaning, then different stylistic meanings are attached to them and they affect sensitivity. Since language is means of development and struggle, it shall be not only understandable, but also effective and attractive [9, 78].
In this area conceptual function of expressive words is especially evidentin the language. Emotional words, as mode of communication, cover all areas of human speech, and can be basis of many concepts. Expressive words are formed from primary word and by means of application of words in variable meaning. Words differ from primary objective meaning, which affects feeling, providing different stylistic meaning to the word [10, 19]. Since language is means of development and struggle, it shall be not only understandable, but also effective and attractive. Conceptual function of expressive words is especially evident in the language in this area.
So, it may be said that following results were achieved:
– emotional words are words, expressed through artistic linguistic means, by means of participation of emotions, feelings, and will, which express different impact of individual on the environment. They appear at language level mainly in three aspects (phonetic, lexical, grammar).
– emotional words are apparent in the languageon grammar level and in the root and derivative individual. When words, expressed in form of imitation words, appeared in the root, then it has emotive shade by means of word-formative or word-transforming additions. Also some endings, namely, ending of possessive form and some connective words, provide emotional meaning to the attached word.
In general, we can see that there is emotionality and expressiveness in the language, and they have clear differences from each other. No wonder that there is a question for what emotionality and expressiveness are used. Therefore, it is necessary if we want that words were not poor, but impressive, and feelings and ideaswere the same. I think that it will be not mistake if we say that functions of expressive words are at high level. Emotionality and expressivity are deeper theoretical and practical categories which be comprehensively analyzed.