As it is pointed out in bibliographic sources, successful management of forest complex requires a strict system of rules and principles.
Nowadays forest complex includes the following elements:
– Considering the assortment of wood industry, subsectors (forestry, wood procession, cellulose-paper industry, hydrolize), industrial, and wood processing industry;
– Production of wood materials;
– Export of wood;
– In relation to scientific-research institutions of forestry – training of staff for forestry sector;
– Construction works;
– Repair service with elements of machinery.
Russian forest industry is represented by such sectors as wood procession, paper industry, wood procurement, and wood procession. It forms around 4% of the whole output volume of industry of Russian Federation (4% of export revenue, 8% of work places, and 2,3% of cost of basic assets .
Within structure of forest we can outline complexes of forestry, and each of them should be studied as an independent system of management.
Forest complex includes scientific-research and project organizations and institutions, involved in solution of scientific-research and engineering-economic problems that present certain interest for industrial complex.
Forest complex provides for multiplication, preservation, and usage of forest resources. The leading function is restoration of trees and bushes. Power capacity of wood production is defined by annual growth of wood that can be used in preparation of wood materials. It is related closely with production of wood that terminates restoration process in forestry. Wood production creates foundation for procurement of woodcutting materials.
Forest complex also includes forest-hunting sector. Forest hunting is the most efficient type of hunting. Therefore, in order to provide for rational usage and restoration of both flora and fauna resources, complex hunting campaigns are implemented frequently.
Enterprises of utilizing wastes, related to procurement of turpentine, occupies a middle position between forestry and forest industry. It embraces a life-time usage of pine tree standings. This production can also include production of stump resin. As for wood procession industry within forestry, a subsidiary of the main company can bear assisting functions and is aimed to process low-value wood.
Forest sector of economy is a source of wood resources. This form of nature usage plays a special role in preserving and improving life environment. Forests are the main consumers of carbon dioxide and they support planetary deposits of oxygen, accumulate fresh water resources, protect soil from wind and water erosion. Forests have an effective impact upon temperature and wind conditions of terrain, amount and distribution of fallout, mass of air, clean from dust and harmful additions.
The existing sectorial structure of forest complex in Russian Federation is incomplete, as it is directed towards procurement and procession of mainly large wood materials. However, when it comes to small wood, not all transactions that took place in the country, were discovered. It is related to the fact that cellulose-paper and hydrolize industry, being the major consumers of fine-grain wood, are not sufficiently developed. For the same reason, waste, produced by wood-procuring enterprises, are used in insufficient amount.
Activity of forest industrial complex is based upon usage of restored forest resources, therefore, when we speak of managing forest industry, we should consider problems of forest usage. A typical feature of management over forest industry is the fact that it combines both sides of activity.
Thus, successful realization of measures that provide for development of forestry in economy, is only possible in case of implementing complex approach in two areas – forest usage and forest industry. This underlines the urgency of managing forest complex.
Under managing forest complex we usually understand a purposeful influence of government bodies (business subjects) upon administrative object that provides for achievement of strategic objectives of forest complex with consideration of specific conditions of different regions.
Specifics of managing forest complexes consists in the fact that it embraces two aspects of activity. First of all, it is the fullest possible and most efficient fulfilment of demand of society for various wood resources. The second objective is defined by necessity not only to preserve, but also improve quality of this important restored resource.
Thus, forest usage of a complex is closely related with two directions in forestry and wood processing activity that define their objectives, problems, and different forms of property .
The foundation of forest legislation is set in the first regulations of Soviet government – “on soil” and “on forests”. In these documents, all forests were claimed as state property. In 1923 the first Forest code of the country was accepted, and it defined the single legalized system of organizing and managing forestry all around the country. Therefore, state regulation of forest relations received an adequate legal foundation for provision of rational forest usage, preservation and restoration of them .
Acceptation of Forest code in 2006 is an important step in process of developing forest complex. It suggests new mechanisms of interaction between subjects of forest relations as well as continuation of institutional upgrades within the system of managing forests, directed towards decentralization of it .
Forest code is a normative legal act that regulates relations with forests and organization of forest usage in Russian Federation.
Acceptation of it resulted in the most significant changes in state system of forest usage in history of Russia.
We should underline that for a long time normative acts on forests that were directed towards intensive usage and exploitation of forest resources did not make a strong emphasis upon the basic principle of managing waste which is the priority in protection of natural objects before their usage.
At the national level a policy of Russian Federation that corresponds to interests of state, business, and society, is being formed and accepted. Normative-legal foundation is being developed in order to establish implementation of Strategy of forest complex development that will correspond to international law and forest legislation of subjects of Russian Federation in union with legislation that regulates usage, protection, and restoration of forests.
Improving organizational structure of forest management is defined by organization of special authorized body of state forest regulation at federal, regional, and municipal level of government that will be empowered with authority of state forest management, managing and controlling service weapons, arms, and defense system in accordance with legislation .
– Developing policy of developing forest complex;
– Regulating within sector of forestry;
– Supervising implementation of authority by subjects of Russian Federation;
– Inter-regional management of fire protection in forests;
– National Forest Cadaster;
– Providing cadaster accounting of forest sites;
– Monitoring forest usage, forest fires, and forest pathologies, monitoring radiation condition of forests;
– Organizing production of forest seeds;
– Coordinating activity of regional forest authorities that include executive bodies of founding authorities of Russian Federation;
– Optimizing forest science and forest education;
– Realizing international responsibilities of Russian Federation in the sector of forestry;
– Organizing inter-regional cooperation in case of forest emergency.
An important element of forest usage is organization of forest usage. Nowadays about 40% of forests, included in Forest inventory for period over 10 years in total value of over 3 million ha, that previously belonged to agricultural organizations, have not been accounted for forest inventory .
The major part of management functions has been transferred to regions. They are also authorized to act as owners of forest territories, carry out executive and administrative, control, and certain regulatory functions.
Decentralization of managing forestry implies creating at the level of Federation subjects independent management structures and authorized bodies of executive power in the area of forest relations – regional bodies of power .
Regional bodies of power will carry out functions on providing state services and managing state property in the area of forest relations, along with bodies of law-enforcement activity at the territory of Russian Federation. Regional authorities that carry out state management and realization of a subject’s jurisdiction in the area of forest relations directly or via jurisdictional state enterprises and institutions of Russian Federation. Financing activity of regional authorities is carried out with means of budget of Russian Federation.
Further we present you regional structure of forest management.
Territorial authorities of federal institution of forest management include bodies of managing forestry in subjects of Russian Federation and forest sites of federal authority of forest management .
Federal management of forestry and national parks in amount, required for maintaining state administrative activity in the area of implementing, protecting forest resources and restoration of forests.
Exploitation of forests undergoes in order to maintain their multi-functional, rational, continuous, stable usage, along with development of forest industry. Forest usage is carried out in accordance with their purpose and realized their useful functions.
According to civil law of Russian Federation, all forest sites and forests, located within territories of defense, are federal property. Civil law and Forest code of Russian Federation guarantee to citizens their right to be at the grounds of forest fund and in forests, not included into forest fund. Citizens and organizations, located at the territories of forest fund, can be guaranteed of rights of usage: permanent (expressed) usage, lease, granted expressed usage .
The main condition of managing regional forest complex is balance of ecological, economic, and social objectives; economic responsibility of forest relations in dependence of their authorities; maintenance financial variants of their implementation; economic interest of forest relations in creation of stable management of forest complex.
Therefore, the objective of regional authorities is to create conditions, required for innovative development of forest complex.
The main conditions and requirements towards management of forest complex should be those that are related objectively to processes that undergo in state and economy.
Particularly, they include:
– changes in system of economic relations;
– distribution of forest complex management between priority national projects;
– foundation and preparation of the required normative base.
These conditions play the part of initial premises for economic relations in forest complex.
However, as domestic and foreign experience shows, the foundation of managing forestry consists in complex problem of defining and learning principles, among which the main attention is devoted to the existing conditions and conditions that still exist. In this case we speak of transition of forest complex from regime of activity to regime of development. Therefore, concept of regional forest usage should be studied as one among many stages of continuous process of forest usage development.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Nature management and environmental protection” Amsterdam (Netherlands), October 20–26, 2019, came to the editorial office оn 23.10.2019.