The value of education is determined by its competitive ability in the formation of the citizen, personal and professional, impact on the political sphere of public life.
The idea of creating a single European space of higher education described in Bologna Declaration identified common challenges in designing a single model of higher education .
Analysis of trends of modern education allows us to distinguish two global processes – confrontation of educational systems to each other and their interrelation and complementarity, expressed by the processes of diversification and internationalization.
the challenges of globalization greatly influence on multinational and multicultural Russia, and problems of intercultural communication in the last two decades has become extremely relevant . Nowadays, a completely new type of teacher is established in the world social space, which is “able to focus on the needs of the individual, to change the life of society, to understand another culture, to bear the social responsibility to the individual for the quality of education” .
Being a multinational state, Russia determines the specifics of multicultural educational space, based on the revival of the intellectual and creative potential of the nation, integration of the individual into the international space. The cultural approach claims new universals: spiritual one, revealing the creative man and his life’s ideals system; humanistic, claiming human’s nature; communicative, requiring the knowledge of himself and others; active, creating conditions for self-realization . Based on the foregoing, the issue of the educational space of higher school modernization as a training environment for new type of primary school teachers with advanced moral and communicative abilities that allow him to become mobile in the modern market of educational services becomes very important.
In the conditions of modernization of education in the context of multicultural educational space there is a need for the development of new competencies of future primary school teachers due to the creation of high-quality information environment that activates the students to learn new means of communication: methods of communication, language culture, ideas about the logic of construction, the structure of the information arrays, the fundamental working skills with texts and others .
Designing of polylingual environment education of future primary school teachers creates a new multinational and multicultural space, which provides to each of them the conditions for self-development. E.V. Bondarevskaya notes that the culturological approach as a methodological basis of designing the content and methods of education is “crucial for the development of education and the necessity of its implementation in the context of culture” [2, 6].
Quick change of the situation in the world and educational space lead to the necessity of multileveled education, which means the education of man through all his life, during which his needs in self-education come true. This understanding of graduate education dictates the need of the revision of the content of preparation of primary school teachers – the accumulation of such competences that would allow him constantly to enlarge his experience with new competences, depending on the prevailing educational situation in the region, at school in the context of multilevel and competent approach. Transformation from the traditional model of specialist’s training to the multilevel one actualizes the problems of the professional community orientation on adoption primary school bachelor of education and the need to change the content and technology of primary school teachers training in the conditions of multilingual education in the region and world trends of the development of competences of higher education graduates.
In the context of higher and elementary schools modernization the priorities in primary school teachers’ training at the undergraduate level are: the creation of an integrated multilevel system of primary school teachers’ training based on new ideas of modern education, developing in the context of Bologna agreement; the development of primary school teacher competences containing linguistic, professional, communicative and information modules corresponding to modern types of schools and requests of students for the education; integration of modern technologies changing learning environment of personal and professional development of students into the bachelors studying according to the “Primary education” profile; up-bringing of tolerant primary school teacher personality, which is able to respect the dignity of each student.
The analysis of the researches and experience in training primary school teachers in various Russian universities showed that the problem of bachelors training on the “Primary education” profile remains relevant and poorly developed in the system of multilevel education.
Modeling of the pedagogical education content on the basis of the competence approach requires the selection of pedagogical competences, reflecting the many subject relations in primary school educational process, pedagogical patterns, which ensure the quality of primary school pupils’ training.
The content itself is aimed at the formation of relations to the universal and national culture values, the development of needs to explore and design personal and professional life within the boundaries of those values (preserving the best traditions of Russian education with its values: identity, activity, solidity, etc.), the cultural-historical experience of the peoples of the republics for which a primary school teacher is prepared. All this allows to open new possibilities in the world experience knowledge, revealing the horizons of the knowledge of new technologies and cultures, and providing teacher mobility and flexibility in educational services market.
Culturological approach to the modernization of education reinforces the humanistic context of primary school teachers’ education, defines the cultural bases of multilingual environment and the development of personality in it. On this basis, high school aims to prepare a new type of primary school teacher, able to interact with the culture, learn it, and act as a carrier of values and behavior patterns of a specific culture, create a new communicative culture in the professional environment and in the system of relations “teacher-student”.
Modern researches of the problem of primary school teacher training reveal the prevailing concept of development of pedagogical education, e. i. activity approach, ensuring the formation of the means of self-determination and self-building; learner-centered approach that changed the attitude to the education system and put in the forefront the interests of the student; humanistic one, which oriented the content of education and teaching technologies on the development and education of the individual. The focus of education on culture filled it with human meaning and values (people, culture, creativity, growth, individuality, community, etc.) that made the content of teacher education, helped to develop new requirements for the training of primary school teachers which are able to integrate in any socio-cultural and educational space. The development of pedagogical education system should act as a guarantor of the viability of the whole educational system and of the individual as a customer of qualified educational services, changing according to the demands of the region.
Analysis of modern researches on problems of training of future teachers allowed us to highlight the directions which are the most important for our research, identify approaches to designing regional and multilingual competence model of primary school teachers training: the educational environment of the University in the development of the social functions of a future teacher, the forming of transformation ability of new knowledge into the teaching staff; modernization of curricula and programs aimed on students’ training forms; training and methodological support of students educational activity; interdisciplinary relations in the coordination of content and students’ methods of teaching; the organization of independent activity of students; special courses and workshops in educational process at the correspondence departments of universities; professional training of primary school teachers in the system of distance teacher education; primary school teacher training in the conditions of multicultural education.
One of the aspects in the researches of this kind is the question about students’ readiness for the creative professional-pedagogical activity – future primary school teachers in the conditions of multilingual educational environment. The ideas of the Bologna agreement calls for new approaches to the education content taking into account three components: international, national and regional components in the specific conditions of regional development. Primary school teacher is required the development of a communicative culture and social interaction, the ability to unite children in the community to achieve general results and individual success. As the study showed, in the bachelors training at the “Primary education” profile, it is necessary to focus on such a high school graduate, whose diploma could guarantee him a certain career, a high position in society, the creation of original concepts, programs of training and education of younger students as an indicator of creative activity of teachers. Today, the teacher is required not only obtaining a high education diploma, but also a high degree of responsibility for the quality of its activities, the ability to control it, to learn new related skills. This motivates us to search the ways of upgrading of primary school teachers’ training at the undergraduate level in accordance with international and national-regional requirements.