Urgency: The basic principle of postgraduate training for doctors of general practice (GPD) is continuous professional development. For the successful future work a GPD must possess an optimal set of qualities – so called competences. Realization of competence approach in training GPD is assisting them in achieving their primary objective – become a qualified competitive specialist at a labour market. Transition towards competence approach in organizing educational process within training GPD is not possible without facilitation of active methods of education, and this aspect always remains an urgent problem.
Work objective: Department of GPD uses methods of interactive education for internship and postgraduate education. These methods imply methodics of “small groups”, “brain attack”, “set of signs” in an envelope, method of “blank sheet”, role-playing game. This objective of an active methodic should and must be used in process of one class.
The method of “brain attack” or “brainstorm” is efficient for classes with large number of students. We implement it in discussion of a disease etiology. This process provides for formation of competence “knowledge” Role-playing games are used at the stage of studying clinic, diagnostics of a surgical disease. Roles of a patient, doctor, head of department, narrow specialists, invited for consultation, are played. The problem of establishing a diagnosis is solved in process of role-playing game. The “Set of signs” in an envelope is applied in holding differential diagnostic of a disease. Students are provided with a set of signs, symptoms of various acute surgical disease groups, from which they must select symptoms of one disease that corresponds to thematic of class, outline the most significant and typical signs of the studied disease. For example, a lot of disease symptoms according to one author (Kocher) are present in case of acute appendicitis, penetration of ulcer stomach disease, etc., and this method helps students to carry out differential diagnostics. This method stimulates discussion within group and forms the competence “skill”. Method of “blank sheet” is useful in discussing treatment and prevention of chronic disease among patients with vascular pathology, for example, chronic thrombophlebitis of surface veins or varicose trophic ulcers, etc. In this case every GPD must write a treatment protocol, characterize indications and contraindications, side effects of madications. Then treatment protocols are discussed in a group, recommendations on disease prevention are mastered. Method of “blank sheet” forms competence “skills”. The formed competences are subjective to an obligatory evaluation. For “boundary control” and “final control” of DPG knowledge in a certain section of the educational programme method of “small groups” is implemented. This approach is also useful in case of lack for thematic patients, discussion of rare nosological forms of a disease, defining diagnosis according to medical documents (history of disease, etc.) A special feature of active training forms is involvement of doctors into solving the set problems at the foundation of “group dynamics” methods.
Conclusion: Active methods of training and realizing competence approach in educating GPD will provide for making the most efficient decisions in process of carrying out their professional duties and achieving their primary objective – become a qualified and competitive specialist at labour market. In practice some of GPD department graduates have become organizers of hospitals, military surgeons.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Modern sociology and education» England (London), October 15–22, 2016, came to the editorial office оn 06.10.2016.