An important task of a modern teaching methodology of Russian as foreign is an increase of efficiency and quality of education. This task can be solved with the help of the optimization of educational process and all factors determining result of teaching.
The language is an important component of life. It is of great importance not only for daily terrestrial human communication, but also plays a significant role in the professional sphere.
The professional sphere is fundamental in the human activity. It is known that guarantee of successful professional activity of the medical specialist consists not only available necessary knowledge, but also abilities of the professional communication directed to the communication with the patient during rendering professional medical care.
Thus, professional communication of the doctor is an actual problem of modern medicine.
Research objective – to study ways of increase of efficiency and quality of teaching of Russian as foreign in the system of medical students` vocational training.
Now in Russian medical universities there is a large number of foreign students for whom studying of Russian is a necessary condition for social and professional communication, and also for receiving specialty.
We consider an importance of Russian as foreign in medical students` vocational training.
Foreign students of Russian medical universities do practical training in Russian hospitals and policlinics. So they must communicate with Russian patients. Thus, it is very important that by this time foreign students have necessary knowledge and skills.
During the question of the patient it is necessary to find out correctly personal data (full name, age, address, a profession, marital status, etc.) and complaints of the patient. Then it is necessary to collect the anamnesis of disease and the patient’s life. It is very important to do correctly subjective and objective examinations.
Thus, Russian is necessary for foreign students of medical university for adequate communication with patients and acquisition of the experience important in future profession.
So it is necessary to work out a special model for intensification of teaching of Russian in the system of foreign students` professional training in medical university. This model must correspond to the professional tasks specific to the doctor. Creation of such model will allow making teaching process of Russian as foreign in the system of future specialists` professional training more purposeful, managed and effective.
We represent a pedagogical model of intensification of teaching process of Russian as foreign in medical university (Figure).
The pedagogical model of effective teaching of Russian as foreign in the system of medical students` professional training consists of four components: objective component (the objective), theoretical component (approaches, principles), technological component (methods, tutorials, pedagogical conditions), component of results` estimation (criterions and indicators, result).
Teaching of Russian in the system of foreign medical students` vocational training will be successful in case of using main methodical principles constituting a basis of professional communication.
Principles of individualization, a professional orientation, variability, integration, a principle based on the solution of problem situations, functionality, a principle of training in communication on the basis of situations, a principle of study a foreign language through communication are interconnected.
We describe in detail these principles.
1. The principle of individualization is fundamental during teaching of Russian as foreign and one of the main tools for motivation and activity of students. We will examine in details the meaning of the concept “individualization”. Generally the individualization is an adaptation of educational process to opportunities of students; the choice by each of students of own technology of Russian acquisition .
The speech of any person is individual at least in three parameters: according to mechanism of motivation of the speech, to contents of the speech statement, to a way of a formulation of thought. The process of study Russian as foreign is also individual .
During teaching of foreign language it is necessary to give each student a speech task according his requirements and personal interests. Only in this case individual reaction is possible. So if we want to cause proper response, it is necessary to consider individual and especially personal qualities of foreign students: their life experience, an activities context, an area of interest, tendencies of the emotional sphere, outlook, the status of this personality in collective, and also distinction of cultures, traditions, customs, religious and political convictions .
2. According to a principle of professional orientation, an educational activity of medical students in the teaching process corresponds to their future professional activity. The contents of the program for Russian as foreign for medical students have to include the material which is of professional interest to them. Tasks have to stimulate process of transformation of theoretical representations of future profession into practical skills.
Realization of this principle helps medical students to understand better an essence of their future profession in various sociocultural situations of communication. It develops interest and forms dominating motives, so creates a professional orientation of education. The principle of a professional orientation promotes a realization in practice of professional culture’s transfer according the principle “to know – to can – to create – to want” and a formation of professional readiness for future professional activity .
3. The principle of variability provides the variety and the choice of methods, forms and types of works not only for the teacher, but also for the student. So this principle increases student’s cognitive activity. The student can choose himself a task and a way of his performance.
4. Principle of integration. A teaching process of Russian as foreign in the system of medical students` professional training will be more effective on condition of integration of discipline “Russian as foreign” with special medical disciplines (“Surgical diseases”, “Internal diseases”, “Obstetrics and gynecology”, “A public health and health care”, etc.). Integration of disciplines of general cultural and special cycles helps foreign medical students see possible conditions of sociocultural communication in various professional contexts .
Thus, integrative connections promote formation of motivation, development of analytical way of thinking, expansion of a sociocultural and professional outlook and formation of professional and communicative skills and abilities.
Integrative knowledge allows the medical student to have a complete impression about that world in which he lives, about his sociocultural features and regularities.
5. Principle based on the solution of problem situations. According to this principle, students must solve some problem which can arise in their future practical activity. At first a teacher plans ways of a solution of the problem then students try to solve similar problem situations independently.
6. Principle of functionality. According to this principle students study functions of different types of speech activity as means of communication. Grammatical and lexical units not only have the form, but also carry out the function. At the same time forms of lexical units or grammatical structures are associatively connected with the functions.
Thus, it is necessary first of all to draw the student’s attention to function of speech unit, and then – to the form. Functionality means a learning of words and grammatical forms directly in activity.
7. Principle of communication training on the basis of situations. According to this principle students study Russian as foreign with the help of speech situations. The situation is an integrative dynamic system of different relationships between subjects of communication. The situation is a universal form of functioning of teaching process. It is the main condition of formation of skills and development of speech abilities. Thanks to the situation we can develop communicative competence of foreign students.
Model of intensification of teaching of Russian as foreign in medical university
8. Principle of study Russian as foreign through communication. Communication is a human activity. A main objective of teaching is a learning of foreign culture as means of formation of the student’s personality. Thus, communication can be used for education, knowledge and development. Communication is a necessary condition of the correct education. So, communication is one of the main kinds of human activity and realizes functions of education, training, knowledge and development in communicative teaching of foreign culture.
Teaching process of foreign communication represents a model of real communication process in such parameters as: intention, motivation, novelty, informational content of process of communication, functionality, a dependence of situation, nature of interaction of students and system of speech means using by students. Therefore, it is possible to create teaching conditions which are adequate to real. It helps students to develop necessary abilities which they can use in the conditions of real communication .
It is important to note that all these principles are interdependent, interconnected and represent a united system. It determines a strategy of effective teaching of Russian as foreign in the system of professional training of medical students.
Therefore it is necessary to observe all these principles for the best result. It allows to train real specialists which can use Russian as foreign in their profession.
It is possible to optimize educational process by identification and use of reserve opportunities. The content, methods, means and conditions of teaching of Russian as foreign must be adequate to objectives. During teaching Russian to foreign students it is necessary to choose methods and tutorials according to their psychophysical structure, national and personal peculiarities. It is important to intensify teaching process of foreign students, trying to obtain at the same time not only achievements of effective objectives in shorter time, but also the best results.
The equipment of educational process by adequate audio, audiovisual and visual tutorials, textbooks is necessary for effective study of Russian by foreign students.
The intensification of teaching is connected also with searches of new, optimum methods of work. One of the important reserves is the teaching according to psychophysical structure of students, to their national and personal peculiarities, it means training individualization.
So, the correct organization of a teaching material, use of a complex of audio, audiovisual, visual electronic tutorials and textbooks and also oriented and individualized training are those means which allow to increase efficiency and to improve quality of teaching of Russian as foreign.
As a result of this research, it is possible to draw a conclusion that a combination of methods, means, and pedagogical conditions from the model developed by us allows to increase an efficiency of teaching of Russian as foreign in the system of students professional training in medical university.