Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

IDENTIFICATION OF SUICIDE RISK AMONG PUPILS OF 8-11 GRADES

Madaliyeva S.Kh. 1 Yernazarova S.T. 1 Bagiyarova F.A. 1 Belyavskaya B. 1
1 Kazakh National Medical University named after Asfendiyarov
This article is devoted to the today’s urgent problem which is suicide of adolescents. Number of suicides in Kazakhstan has a progressive growth in years. 3735 cases of the finished suicides was established in 2015 compared to 2957 cases in 2014, 3,251 cases in 2013, 3,055 in 2012. School children from 13 to 18 have especial risk for suicide due to their peculiarities of psychological and physical development. According to the literature, every year between 2 and 10 % of pupils in vocational education (colleges, vocational schools) have committed suicide attempt. There is evidence that one completed suicide in the age group of 18 years account for 14 suicide attempts. These disappointing figures show the need for early diagnosis of the risk of suicide among schoolchildren of 8–11 grades by assessing the level of anxiety, aggression, frustration and rigidity as one of the key factors in the development of suicidal behavior. This will allow to provide a professional help to pupils who at risk on time and significantly reduce both suicide attempts and completed suicides among adolescents.
suicide
suicidal behavior
adolescents
school children
high level
anxiety
aggression
frustration
rigidity
prevention
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2. Romanov I.V. Psychophysiological risk criteria of suicidal behavior in schoolchildren aged 14–17. – Chelyabinsk, 2010. – 22 p.
3. Shaffer D., Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention // Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. – 1999. – 60 (Suppl. 2). – Р. 70–74.
4. The Great Encyclopedia of psychological tests. – M.: Eksmo, 2007. – 416 p.

In recent decades, the problem of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is becoming increasingly important as the rate of suicide among the population of Kazakhstan and other economically developed countries of the world is growing steadily. In 2015, 3735 cases of the finished suicide were registered in Kazakhstan, comparing 2014 year to 2957 deaths due to suicide in 2013 – 3251, in 2012 – 3055 [2].

School children from 13 to 18 have especial risk for suicide due to their peculiarities of psychological and physical development According to the literature, every year between 2 and 10 % of pupils in vocational education (colleges, vocational schools) committed suicide attempt. There is evidence that one completed suicide in the age group of 18 years account for 14 suicide attempts. With increasing age, the figure increases, so one completed suicide already accounts 100 suicide attempts [1].

These disappointing figures show the need for early diagnosis of the risk of suicide among school children of 8–11 grades by assessing the level of anxiety, aggression, frustration and rigidity as one of the key factors in the development of suicidal behavior. This will allow to provide a professional help to pupils who at risk on time and significantly reduce both suicide attempts and completed suicides among adolescents [3].

Tasks: Identification of suicide risk among pupils of 8–11 grades

The object of study: Thematurity of suicidal behavior of schoolchildren aged 13–17.

Subject of research: The emotional state of school children

Methods:

1. “Self-assessment of mental states” Eysenck.

This method allowsto identify the level of anxiety, frustration, aggressionand rigidity [4].

Results of investigation:

Table 1

Comparative indicators of the average values of the self-assessment of mental states in the 8 th grade

Grade

Anxiety

Frustration

Aggression

Rigidity

8 “А”

7,79

7,95

7,95

4,46

8 “B”

6,4

6

8,4

8,3

8 “C”

5,08

4,16

4,75

2,21

8 “D”

5,15

6,05

6,21

2,69

8 “E”

6,45

5,5

8,40

8,04

8 “F”

5,5

6,66

5,2

6

Averagevalue

5,98

6,05

6,82

5,28

Table 2

Comparative indicators of the average values of the self-assessment of mental states in the 9, 10, 11th grade

Grade

Anxiety

Frustration

Aggression

Rigidity

9 “А”

6,5

5,5

9,8

10,1

9 “B”

6,1

6,3

8

7,7

9 “C”

5,6

6

8

7,9

9 “D”

3,9

3,2

7,9

4,7

9 “E”

8,6

10

7,4

4,2

10 “А”

8,6

10

7,4

4,2

11 “А”

7,6

8,3

10,3

3,5

Averagevalue

6,7

7,0

8,4

6,0

These tables characterize the self-esteem of mental states and the level of depression of students of 8–11 grades.

Table 1 and Fig. 1 shows that the average values of anxiety, frustration, aggression and rigidity in the 8 th grade are in the normal range. Comparing separate classes, it should be noted that the level of anxiety, frustration and aggression in the 8 “A” class were average, which was higher than in the other classes, where these manifestations had been identified, with the exception of 8 “B” and 8 “D” classes, where there was an average level of aggressiveness, as well as rigidity. The average level of frustration was characterized by a decrease in the resistance to failure.

According to Table 2 and Fig. 2 there was revealed that the average self-assessment of mental status among 9, 10, 11 classes were in the normal range, except for the scale of aggressiveness, which had an average of 9 “A” 9 “B” 9 “C” and 11 “A” grades. The average value of the aggression indicates a decrease in consistency and appearance of small difficulties in communication. In addition, there was an average level of anxiety in the 9 “D” and 10 “A” class, the average level of frustration in the 9 “D”, 10 “A” and 11 “A” class, the average level of rigidity in the 9 “A” class, which characterized students for whom is more difficult than for others to change their opinions, beliefs and behaviors.

Among the 105 students of 8th grade middle level of anxiety was observed in 36 students (34,28 %), the highest level was observed in 3 children (2,85 %). These figures were slightly higher than the results of the 9 classes in which average anxiety was detected in 24 students from 84 people (28,5 %), while the highest level was noted in two (2,38 %). In the 10–11-x classes medium level of anxiety was seen in 18 people from 40 people (45 %) and 1 high level was found (2,5 %).

pic_27.wmf

Fig. 1. The percentages of anxiety levels among 8–11

pic_28.wmf

Fig. 2. Percentages of frustration levels among 8–11

On a scale of frustration the average level of frustration was observed in 30 children of 8 th grade from 105 (28,75 %), the highest level in five people (4,7 %). In the 9th grade average level of frustration was detected in 21 cases (25 % of 84 ninth-graders), and the highest in three students (3,57 %). As for the classes 10 and 11, 40 % (16 out of 40) of children had an average degree of frustration, 2,5 % of high severity.

On a scale of aggressiveness it can be seen that 44,7 % of eighth-graders (47 students out of 105), 42,85 % of ninth-graders (36 of 84) and 67,5 % ten and – eleventh-grades (27 of 40) had an average level of aggressiveness while the high level of this indicator was detected in 8 people of eighth graders (7,6 %), in 10 ninth-graders pupils (11,9 %) and in one eleventh-grade pupil (2,5 %).

On a scale of rigidity it was found that 44,7 % of eighth (47 pupils of 105), 50 % of ninth (42 people out of 84) and 60 % of ten and – eleventh (24, 40) had an average rigidity, while the high level of this indicator was detected in 5 people from eighth (4,76 %), in 4 from ninth (4,76 %) and 3 cases in 10, 11 classes (3,5 %).

pic_29.wmf

Fig. 3. Percentages of agression levels among 8–11

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Fig. 4. Percentages of rifidity levels among 8–11

Conclusions

According to the 10, 11 classses indicators, these children had more common average level of anxiety, frustration, aggressiveness and rigidity, followed by indicators of 8 classes and the last 9th classes. On the basis of this study, guidelines for teachers of these classes were designed as prevention of suicidal behavior.

Timely detection of risk factors for suicidal behavior, will prevent not only the suicide attempts among adolescents, but also improve the psychological condition of the child due to the preventive measures.