Nowadays in conditions of humanization and democratization of education at different levels, particularly in pre-school education a task of improving the level of management of educational process in pre-school educational institutions task is becoming urgent.
Pre-school educational establishment presents such type of educational institution that implements the basic educational programme of pre-school education, and has particular goals, team structure, types and content of informative and communicative processes .
At the present moment educational establishment is a unique public institution that systematically and informally interacts with parents and students and has an opportunity to influence the family.
Management is considered to be a process of interaction of elements and subjects in the result of which we can get interrelated changes. Social order and specific needs of the family determine the functional range and purposes of a pre-school educational institution.
Management of educational process with the family in conditions of pre-school today requires new approaches and solutions that are able to take the peculiarities of educational and learning environment and requirements and needs of parents into consideration.
In pre-schools the nature of relationship between elements of the control system is carried out between the groups – “adults – adults”, “adults – children.”
The aim of managing pre-school is to ensure optimal functioning of these systems and high efficiency of upbringing and educational work with children at less time and effort expenditure. A head of pre-school educational establishment carries out full administration. He/she has overall responsibility for the work of entrusted institution .
Selection of the most important issues and depth of preparation for their discussion in the Council of teachers and at the meetings of personnel, creation of business environment, coordination of staff work depend on a headmistress to a large extent. Co-ordinated activity at all levels of administration, and their relationship with the authorities of collective management ensures high effect in achieving goals .
It is necessary to mention that administrative actions of the head of a teaching staff in a pre-school should relate to constantly changing levels of pre-school education.
Educational process is professionally organized holistic educational process, characterized by a joint activity, cooperation, cultural content and methods of learning culture.
L.M. Luzina considers the process of upbringing to be a specially organized process in which social and educational purposes are realized, conditions for a full spiritual life of students are created to the maximum realization of their natural abilities, for updating their mental and spiritual potentialities .
A.S. Levshin regards an educational process as alive and complicated stream of different groups of pedagogical phenomena .
S.D. Polyakov determines the process of upbringing as a sequence of states, events, and changes, products of teachers’ and children’s interaction unfolding in time. He believes that in the educational process pedagogy is closely connected with psychology that it is sometimes difficult to say where one ends and another begins. The author examines the issue of education in its pedagogical and psychological aspects. This unconventional approach enables us to have a new look at the mechanisms, content, methods, specific features of different directions of the educational process .
The process of upbringing has a distinct structure of interrelated and regulated components:
- target component: the goals, objectives, and socialization of the child’s personality;
- a substantial component – acceptability to the needs of an individual, aducational standard;
- operationally-active: – organization of children’s activities throughout the day;
- analytical and productive: the analysis of pedagogical activity.
Managing educational process with a family in a pre-school educational establishment should provide using human, technical, financial, time and other resources with maximal productivity for developing children of pre-school age.
Specialists of pre-school establishment have a leading role in managing and organizing educational process with parents and other members of a family. But this role is successfully realized in case of good knowledge of family peculiarities, pedagogical conditions of upbringing a child in a particular family.
Management of educational process with the family is a complicated process as it involves personal and professional commitment of all professionals of a pre-school educational establishment to gain and develop new approaches of working with parents, development prospects of education and instructional space, a choice of values for organizing educational environment. Besides it includes willingness of parents to interact with experts on a matter of preschool children education.
The child cannot be limited only to the world of the family, otherwise later he/she will have difficulties of entering into a new social environment. That is why family and teachers of a kindergarten should combine their efforts in education taking into account advantages and disadvantages of everyone and a possibility of mutual compensation.
Family and teachers of pre-school educational establishment create microclimate where a pre-school child lives. It is the environment from which a child gets necessary TV information and adapts to life in society.
Contemporary parents are educated, have a wide access to scientific and popular information from the sphere of Education and Psychology. However, a high level of general culture, erudition and knowledge of parents do not guarantee a sufficient level of their pedagogical competence. Parents have difficulties in developing, educating and training their children, in choosing effective methods and techniques in applying information gained from the Internet and popular science in practice. Experts note constant need of parents to get specific targeted assistance for educating and training children. Those experts of preschool education are able to render assistance to these parents.
In order to form a position of cooperation of teachers, children and their parents it is necessary to create a unique space of child’s development which should be supported by preschool and a family.
In order to organize effective communication of teachers and parents it is important to possess communicative skills and be aware of educational problems of every family. Communication will be successful if it is informative and based on common and significant themes, and while communicating every side enriches their knowledge and skills.
Forms and methods of work with parents in a pre-school establishment are determined by the following factors: the level of general and pedagogical culture of parents; types of family relationships, specific features of a pre-school establishment, age peculiarities of children, etc. There are the following ways of working with parents of preschool children:
- mass forms: lectures, discussions, question and answer sessions, parents’meetings, etc.
- group forms: working with a parents’ committee, counseling boys’ to girls’ parents, etc.;
- individual forms – counselling about age peculiarities, visiting family, etc.
Cooperation of preschool and a family suggests that parents should have a responsibility and teachers have centrality of family educational activities based on consideration of a child only in the context of the family. The main way to establish such cooperation is organizing educational process, which will result in realization of purposes and principles of personality-oriented education of preschool children .
According to educational potential families can be divided into three groups:
1. Families with high potential are mainly active parents’ group. The main challenge in working with this group of parents is to involve them into educational work of the group, into organizing assistance to families with middle and low capacity to use progressive teaching practice of bringing children up gained in these families. As a rule families where children are respected have the most favourable educational conditions.
2. Working with parents with middle educational potential we should focus on developing skills of proper organization of family entertaining activities, of family daily living in order to avoid possible mistakes in the process of educating children and to establish unified demands for children at home and in a pre-school establishment.
3. The main challenge in working with parents with a low potential of the family is to come into contact of a family and a pre-school establishment, to create ideas about parental duties, to raise educational culture, to help parents to adjust conflicts and to improve parent-children relationships.
Необходимо отметить, что в условиях дошкольного образовательного учреждения процесс воспитания направлен на:
It is necessary to mention that in conditions of pre-school educational establishment an educational process is directed to
- holistic education of an individual with the goal of comprehensive integrative development of a personality;
- moulding moral qualities of a person on the basis of human values, socially oriented motivation, harmony of intellectual and emotional spheres of personal development and volition;
- acquainting children with social values in the field of culture and art;
- developing inclinations, abilities and interests of a personality taking his/her possibilities and desires and social requirements into consideration;
- organizing cognitive activity of children;
- organizing personal and socially valuable, versatile activity influenced by the aim of developing personal qualities.
It is necessary to pay special attention to monitoring as a managing function. Monitoring function is an integral part of management. Monitoring function enhances responsibility of specialists.
Monitoring in pre-school establishment is a system of examination and control in accordance of educational process with goals and tasks of educational programme and the Charter of municipal budget pre-school establishment.
Through monitoring management gains the most essential component, without which it cannot exist. It is feedback. Monitoring makes management “able to see” i.e. responsive to changes. It can be carried out as re-questioning of teachers and parents to identify positive dynamics.
Monitoring should be regular, systematic, efficient and transparent. A head of preschool establishment and a senior teacher should create such conditions in which control is as effective as possible other teachers are interested in its objectivity.
Thus, management of educational process with a family in a pre-school educational establishment involves personal and professional readiness of all experts of pre-school educational establishment to adopt and develop new ways of working with parents.
The main aim of management of educational process with a family is to establish of trustful relationship between children, parents and educators, uniting them into a single team. Managing educational process enables experts of pre-school educational establishment to refuse from evaluating strategy in relations with parents. Indeed, experts should create a friendly atmosphere of a dialogue, be attentive to the problems of parents and their worries, to teach parents to examine behaviour of their child, to pay attention to his/her peculiarities and abilities, to be able to infuse parents with hope for success in the educational process of their child.