Since 2001, the Republic of Kazakhstan developed the course ‟Self-knowledge” in the spiritual – moral education. The author of the project is the first lady of the country – S.A. Nazarbayeva. Many educational institutions starting from the senior group of kindergarteners, including secondary school (grades 1–11) and first-year students classes on ‟Self-knowledge” on a trial basis .
The program consists of a number of developmental activities and is focused on:
1) the principle of positivity, meaning the creation of supportive kindness, atmosphere and cooperation;
2) the principle of spirituality, establishes a link between the higher values: goodness, beauty, health, happiness and a particular person, his inner world, the behavior, the meaning of life;
3) the principle of integrity and self-development, helping to build a positive future;
4) the principle of development and self-development, meaning the intensification of creative opportunities, the ability to self-knowledge and self-improvement;
5) the principle of individual approach, meaning the maximum consideration of mental identity and individual experience of each.
Since 2010, the lessons of the ‟Self-Knowledge” introduces a mandatory component of education. Due to the necessity of training in ‟self-discovery” Ministry of Educational and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan approved State Educational standards specialty ‟Social pedagogy and self-knowledge”, which was developed in Kazakh State Women’s Pedagogical University, Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abayfor Harmonious Development of Man at National Scientific-practical Educational and Wellness center ‟Bobek” Karaganda State University.
The standard is based on state educational standards of the Republic of Kazakhstan 3.07.034–2001 and sets requirements for the content of education, the teaching load volume and the level of bachelor on specialty 5V012300 – ‟Social pedagogy and self-knowledge” .
Prerequisites include such areas of psychology as general psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology, educational psychology, health psychology, the psychology of self-awareness and self-knowledge, self-knowledge, and a workshop on self-development, psychological – pedagogical diagnostics, foundations of psycho – consultation and psycho – correction.
At the moment the most important task of the development of civilization is overcoming the global environmental crisis and building a post-industrial, information – Ecological Society (S.N. Glazachev, A.D. Ursul and etc.). Environmental well-being is one of the main advantages of Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. In this circumstance, President NursultanNazarbayev has repeatedly drawn the attention of domestic and foreign investors. It would seem unlikely to have to someone – that to convince of the need to respect for nature: the history of the twentieth century, full of facts of man-made disasters, is an object lesson to mankind.
As you know, in terms of wildlife conservation humanity taken certain steps. However, there is already a bitter experience irreversible destruction of man. These problems in Kazakhstan include the nuclear tests conducted during 40 years at the Semipalatinsk test site and the environmental situation in the Aral Sea area.
In Kazakhstan in 2005 at the legislative level have been made to the Law ‟On Environmental Protection”.
Today, the science of psychology is not sufficiently included in the solution of environmental problems, significantly inferior in ‟environmental activism” sciences such as sociology, philosophy, political science, law, etc.
The problem of the influence of ecology on mental development and health in the Republic of Kazakhstan is being staged by the problem. Meanwhile, the solution to this problem requires urgent action from – the growing number of children with disabilities and developmental delays that were thrown beyond teaching – educational process.
Children living in the Aral Sea region, different from other populations of Kazakh children higher overall morbidity, increased levels of chronic disease, retarded mental and physical development. Some authors also noted an extremely low level of the quality of life of people in the Aral Sea region, while in other publications this region was characterized as an area of great ecological disaster caused by anthropogenic influence.
Since these findings were made in the analysis of a small number of experimental data is very important to carry out detailed studies that would allow more detailed study of the health of children living in the Aral Sea region, and to identify the main sources of possible negative impacts.
To this end, in the framework of the international project INTAS № 1005 was undertaken multiparameter study aimed to study the physical and mental development and physical health status of children living in the Aral Sea region .
To determine the mental state of children unfavorable environmental Priaralie were selected set of techniques that determine the level of anxiety, the emotional state of the behavior and mental abilities of: Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a technique of studying the behavior of the child’s personality, T.V. Senko test, the test Luscher colour associations, diagnostic, drawing tests: ‟Drawing Families”, ‟Non-existent animal” self-study techniques, talks with parents.
The control group was selected similar group Balkhash area (Curtin district, Almaty region, pos. Akshi).
According to Raven’s Progressive Matrices determined that more than half of all children surveyed have average intelligence IQ (61,4 %), which is in itself cause for alarm, and 16,0 % have a level of intelligence, even below average and 6,0 % of the patients were found extremely low degree of intelligence, irrelevant in this age category.
Compared with the intelligence of children of the Aral Sea region children in Balkhash no children with low intelligence and children with good intelligence is almost 2,5 times higher than in children ecologically unfavorable Aral Sea area. The dependence of the level of intelligence of the child’s emotional state, the state of anxiety, the analysis showed drawings ‟nonexistent animal” and ‟Draw a man”, as the following data:
1) the low level of development thinking, with deviation from the 35,7 % of the patients;
2) 5,7 % of the children does not meet the level of development of age;
3) 58,6 % of children experience anxiety, fear, timidity, shyness.
It was found that children experiencing anxiety, 3 times less than in the relatively environmentally safe area – the village. Akshi, although in the area of children with the level of development is not age-appropriate, and difficulties in communicating a lot of – 44,0 %. In what – the extent, such a situation can be explained by the mentality of the children surveyed (children in the village generally unsociable, shy, did not immediately reveal themselves in front of a stranger).
In general, according to a survey of children in the two regions, ecologically unfavorable Aral Sea area and the safe area of Balkhash to the following conclusions:
1) 40,0–60,0 % of preschool children are experiencing anxiety, fear, they are shy, timid, are in a state of stress the Aral Sea area;
2) children experiencing anxiety, fear in Balkhash 3 times lower (20,1 vs. 58,6 % in the Aral Sea area);
3) the level of thought, the level of intelligence (from 40,0–60,0 % of children) is average, below average, does not correspond to their age (in Aralsk);
4) children Balkhash intelligence is much higher than their peers from s. Aralsk (almost 40,0 % in the good degree of intelligence);
5) approximately 60,0 % of children Aralsk in a state of low performance, stress, choice of yellow colour in the test Luscher indicates that children are emotional, not independent. The children of the village.Akshi only 30,0 % with a high degree of anxiety;
6) on the level of activity in the communion received the same data, which, in our opinion, is primarily determined by the mentality of the test.
To identify possible sources of increased anxiety in children aged 5–8 years were analyzed two variants of correlation:
1) morphometric parameters between children and their level of anxiety;
2) between the degree of stress in children and their parents.
The results showed that the level of anxiety among children and the ratio of body weight increase and a negative correlation was found (p ≤ 0,05).
The group of adults – parents of children – was also represented by two samples. Total surveyed 592 adult humansubjects contingent.
The results of a poll conducted among adult members of the families of all children surveyed showed that in both villages live mainly poor people, whose monthly family income is not more than 5 thousand tenge (about 30 US dollars). Such families in Aralsk was 94,5–92,2 % in village Akshi, was about the same and the unemployment of fathers in these families – 46,2 % in s. Aralsk and 46,0 % in the villageAkshi. Families also did not differ in other indicators.
Assessment of the severity of stress in adults showed that the proportion of people in a state of psychological depression in Aralsk was significantly higher than in village Akshi (51,6–14,5 %, respectively). But the degree of fatigue of adults were slightly higher in village Akshi. While the settlements did not differ in the level of anxiety of adults. The degree of stress, determined by the average individual psychological status of adults, village Akshi was slightly lower than in s. Aralsk(p ≤ 0,01).
To identify possible reasons for the high frequency of psychological depression among adults carried out a correlation analysis of the relationship of the results of psychological and sociological testing. It turned out that only two parameters – the monthly income per family member and the social status of the father – the negatively correlated with the severity of stress (p ≤ 0,05). Other correlations are not revealed. Thus, the poorer the family, following his father’s social status, the more pronounced psychological depression in parents.
Comparing the data obtained for children and adults, we have to state a bleak picture for the city of Aralsk diagnostics.
The findings suggest that mental health, emotional state, intelligence residents ecologically unfavorable areas require further Aralsk (diagnostic and remedial) work.
It is known that in recent years in our country and abroad formed a new scientific direction – ‟Health Psychology”. This branch of knowledge is a synthesis of psychology and valeology.
We offer the following contents of the course ‟Psychology of health” for the specialty ‟Social pedagogy and self-knowledge”:
1) Introduction. The goal, tasks, subject and content of the course ‟Psychology of health”. Place of the course ‟Psychology of health” in the system of the human sciences.
2) The problem of health psychology in psychological – pedagogical literature.
3) The problem of health psychology.
4) Psychological health of children.
5) Socio-psychological and psychosomatic maladjustment.
6) The views of Kazakh scientists on national – spiritual aspect of a person.
7) The functions of the social teacher, the psychologist to preserve the mental and psychological health of children and teachers.
8) Effect of ecological environment on the human psyche.
In the study course provides the opportunity to use training to preserve and strengthen the psychological health of the individual.
The course ‟Health Psychology” we developed on the basis of theoretical analysis, as well as the result of:
1) the experimental lessons of ‟self-discovery”;
2) pilot survey of psychological state, including the psychological health of the inhabitants of the two regions of Kazakhstan.