In recent years, we see increasing attention of pediatricians, neurologists, epileptology problem attracted febrile seizures (FS). Febrile seizures are paroxysms different duration, including other forms of tonic or tonic-clonic seizures in infants, young and school-age children with body temperature of at least 38 °C (except convulsions in neuroinfection). FS can be transformed into afebrile seizures and epilepsy. FS are not epilepsy, but may be the cause of epilepsy and forming a stable intellectual and neurological deficit. To date, there is no clear understanding of the causes of FS, but as an opportunity to consider several factors. It is assumed that any infection can trigger the development of attack. In the structure of infectious diseases in children are leading acute respiratory infections (ARI).
Purpose – the study of FS etiology in children aged from 3 till 36 months (3 years old) with ARI.
Methods and patients. We observed 58 patients with FS on the background of ARI in the Krasnoyarsk Inter-District Children’s Hospital №1 (October 2013 – February 2014). In order to decipher the underlying disease etiologic research was conducted from nasal swabs in the reaction immunofluorescence antigen detection of respiratory viruses, identification markers herpesvirus (HSV types 1 and 2, HHV-5 (CMV), HHV-6) in serum by enzyme immunoassay with the definition of the index of antibody avidity. We study determination of DNA viruses in blood lymphocytes, nasopharyngeal mucus and urine by PCR.
Results. The average age of the patients was 24,6 months: 56,9 % of boys (33 pers.), 43,1 % girls (25 pers.). Among the children surveyed we have found the following etiological structure FS: antigens of influenza A virus (H3N2) – 15,5 % (9 people); respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus type 1 accounted from 7 % till 9 % of FS cases. Along with the respiratory virus group, one of the leading agents in subjects herpes viruses were the 5th and 6th type. Determined by enzyme immunoassay Ig G titers to HHV-6 type at 22.4 % (13 pers.) In the study of blood serum enzyme immunoassay were detected CMV Ig G antibodies in 25.9 % (15 people.) Observed patients have antibodies CMV Ig M and Ig G were detected in 1 child. At 5.2 % (3 pers.) enzyme immunoassay surveyed registered a high titer of Ig G HSV types 1 and 2 (1:3200). Among all surveyed virus viral mixed infections (ARI + infections caused by herpesviruses 1st, 5th and 6th type or combinations thereof) are installed in 36,2 % (21 pers.)
Conclusion. The results of the study confirm the diversity of etiological structure of ARI, as well as high herpesvirus infection of children with FS development. FS are actual problem of modern pediatrics. For proper diagnosis, choice of causal treatment and dispensary observation of this group of patients is necessary to continue research in this area.
Gratitude. This is research conducted at support of “Krasnoyarsk regional fund of support of science and scientific and technical activity”. (A grant “A role of polymorphism of genes of IL-1β and 1α-субъединицы sodium channels of neurons of the CNS, in development of the febrile seizures at children”, 2015).
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “PRIORITY directions of DEVELOPMENT of SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING Priority areas of science, technology and engineering”, the NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam), October 20–26, 2015, came to the editorial office оn 31.07.2015.