Provision of mineral materials in different sectors of domestic industry is an important problem of science and technology, as stocks of raw materials as well as replenished anthropogenic materials is necessary for normal operation of enterprises [1–6]. For example, during the process of producing nonferrous metals a great number of substances forms: slag wastes, slime of irrigated suspensions of nano- and micro-dispersed particles, dust, and the discharged gases. In order to produce construction materials and products (especially those of special purpose, in other words, designed to operate under the impact of high and low temperatures, aggressive environments, grating and hit-vibration strains, etc.). First of all, granulated slags and slimes (nepheline, bauxite, sulphate, monocalcium, etc.) have industrial significance . Works, aimed to study physical-chemical, mechanical, and technological characteristics of multi-tonnage slag wastes, produced during the procession of nonferrous ore, have shown that production of construction materials can utilize slags, received from procession of copper and nickel ores that excel furnace slags in such characteristics as durability and acid resistance [1, 5]. Granulated slags are an alternative to siliceous component in production of materials of autoclave curing; their implementation is also possible in receiving heavy concretes that are dense, fine-grained, light on porous fillings, and porous . Slags of nonferrous metals, processed into stone and small filling can be the most efficient way to solve problems in the area of environment preservation and utilization of wastes after the extraction of valuable components [1, 5]. Slime wastes (byproducts of processing alumina-containing material) can be used in production of cements: kaolin slime is close to Portland cement in its chemical composition, belit slime (nepheline) is used in production of highly-active cements [1, 2, 4]. Apart from cement production, nepheline slime is also utilized in production of construction bricks, blocks, plates; in road construction it is used to fortify soils of underlayer; in production of binding for asphalt-concrete, output of fire-resistant bodies, colored glass, etc. [1, 4]. Another perspective approach is discharge of independent concentrates (for example, molybdenium concentrate from copper-molybdenium ores, copper and bismuthic concentrate from tungsten-molybdenium ores, feldspar concentrate from nonferrous metals, etc.) ; production of fire-resistant glues from the processed chromia-alumina catalysts and phosphate bindings , etc. Possibility of using disperse ashes – carryovers as aliminia silicate components of alkaline bindings was studied in works of V.D. Glukhovskiy and co-authors [2, 6]. In order to construct ash-alkaline bindings on alkaline components (sodium, sodium fusion cake, liquid glass), P.V. Krivneko, R.F. Runova, E.K. Pushkareva have suggested methods that imply combined graining of ashes or ash-slag compositions with lime or metallurgical slag and Portland cement clinker; however, regardless of utilization of the prepared disperse product – carryover ashes, production of such binding solutions requires grain of component combination, and it may limit introduction of the method into production in certain cases .
Thus, practical significance of implementing different wastes of nonferrous metallurgy in production of construction materials of special purpose does not cause any doubt. However, due to insufficient provision of technological aspects of utilization, part of the re-processed wastes at the enterprises of nonferrous metallurgy remains small, the greatest part of wastes is drained into storages or took to the drop. From our point of view, active utilization of multi-tonnage wastes of nonferrous metallurgy is not resent in the country, as their re-procession requires special physical-chemical technologies, linked to the basic sources of forming secondary materials.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Fundamental research”, CROATIA (Istria) 23 July–30 July 2015, came to the editorial office оn 30.06.2015.