According to the historian of the 16th century, Mohammed Haydar Dulati Kazakh Khanate was established in 1465. In historical science, Kazakhstan has a number of statements on the date of formation of the Kazakh Khanate. The researcher calls T. Sultanov date education Kazakh Khanate in 1470-71 years N. Mynzhan in 1456, A Khasenov in 1445. Fruitfully engaged in the study of the Kazakh Khanate K. Pischulina, S. Zholdaspayuly and B. Karibaev fully agrees opinion M. H. Dulati. Founders Kazakh Khanate were the descendants of the founder of the Ak Orda Urus Khan Sultani Kerey and Zhanibek. On opinion of the investigator V.P. Yudina during the reign of Urus Khan, the Kazakhs were not called yet Kazakhs.
Only after carting Kerey and Zhanibek in the territory of the Chu River and Kozybasy word becomes ethnonym Kazakh. A Kazakh khans and Kerey Janibek are really headed Kazakhs. Soon then Kazakh word applies to the vast expanses of the Dasht-i Kipchak. According to researchers until the middle of the seventeenth century there Overall Kazakh unity. The rulers of this period Kasim Khan (1511–1518), Khaknazar (1538–1580), Shygay (1580–1582), Tauekel (1582–1598), Yesim Khan (1598–1628) called the owners did not separate hordes, and hanami all Kazakhs. Kazakh Bies – supporters of unification into a single state-not in vain then, always mentioned Kasim Khan and Yesim Khan.
Calling for unity, have always said that we should go “straight road Kasim Khan and the old road Yesim Khan.” The division into three Kazakhs Juz has not yet found a clear explanation. There are different opinions on this issue. Pre-revolutionary Russian scientists and orient lists of the Soviet period is the division into three Kazakh hordes to the seventeenth century (V. Velyaminov Zernov et al.), The researcher M. Krasovsky completely denies the existence of the unity of the Kazakh Union. By V.V. Bartold, the emergence of independent Kazakh lands associated with the isolation of their nomadic.
M.P. Vyatkin believes that the territory of the Great Horde was the center of all the Kazakhs, so she called the Great, the allocation of the same Middle Horde occurred in the seventeenth century, the beginning of hanstvovaniya descendants Usyaka in Junior Zhuz begins with Abulhair and falls on the 20 years of the eighteenth century. The process of disintegration of the Kazakh Khanate was in the middle of the eighteenth century. Inside one Khanate appear Sultan individual ownership. After the death of Abul Khair Khan only in Junior Zhuz there were several possessions sultans, Abul Khair Khan himself during his lifetime exercised power through their sons. Each of his son ran a separate district. For example, Nuraly – bayulinskim, Aychuvak – tyurtkariyskim, Adil – chumekeyskim childbirth.
This Abulhair sought to expand the territory of their holdings and increase the amount of subordinated labor. But this division is not strengthened Khanate, but rather led to its weakening. Each tribal association and generation according to ancient custom ruler should be the sultan. Before 1750 in the generation Zhetyru sway Eset Batyr, despite this, in 1750 zhetyruovtsy accepted as ruler Aychuvak-Sultan, Aychuvak distinguished courage and vigor. Therefore zhetyruvtsam it was needed for solving intergeneric land disputes and other matters affecting the interests of an entire generation. In addition sultans rulers through Abul Khair Khan, in the Junior Zhuz considered independent owner and Batyr Sultan Kayipov.
The jurisdiction of the Batyr-Sultan was a large part of the generations alimulintsev. This property was inherited from his father Kaip Khan. Later, after returning from Khiva son Batyr Kaip actually rules this district. Kaip Jr. P47 – 1758. Hans ticipate in the Khiva, and in 1758, fearing a conspiracy Khiva Bolsheviks, fled to his father. Sultan-Batyr and his son Kaip Jr. behaved as independent owners and did not depend on Nuralyhana. In addition to these Junior Zhuz independent rulers sultans had another owner Sultan Khan’s nephew Nuraly – dosa Niyazov. Power dosa-Sultan applies to certain labor-generation alimuly. Thus, in the 50-70 years of the eighteenth century, Jr. Horde was subdivided into several domains with the Sultan at the head of each.
In the last quarter of the eighteenth century in the Junior Zhuz happened many historical events in this territory in 1773–1775 he passed the peasant uprising led by Pugachev, and in 1783–1797 years of People’s Liberation Movement podpredvoditelstvom Srym Datov. With the approach of Russian military lines to younger zhuzu frequent raids Khiva became the Bolsheviks on the Kazakh border villages. This prompted some Kazakh sultans, such as Sultan beech -son Nuralyhana, migrate to a safe place. Using the sub-support and personal friendship with the chieftain of the Astrakhan Cossack troops P.S.Popovym Sultan Bukei asked Emperor Paul I allow migrations to the area between the Urals and the Volga.
At this time, a huge space between the Urals and the Volga, where once roamed the Kalmyks, but then left the area, was empty. Empty seats do not bring any benefits to Russia, so the Russian government agreed to migrations villages Sultan Bouquet. Authorizing a decree went out March 11, 1801, but there was no migrations until December of the same year. December 20, 1801 crossed the Ural Sultan himself Bukei 183 tents of his village. On that day, all crossed over 740 people, and with them 24 camels, 1,366 head of cattle, 3,300 horses and 102,500 sheep. Migrations led esaul Astrakhan Cossack troops V.F.Skvortsov (also in 1818–1822 years chieftain of the Astrakhan Cossack troops). Thus was formed last Khanate in the Kazakh steppe (khan management in Kazakhstan abolished in the first quarter of the nineteenth century) – Bukey or internal Khanate (1801–1846), is located within the boundaries of the current Western Kazakhstan.
History Bukeyev Khanate very extensive and full of many historical events. Here hanstvoval Bukei Nuraliev (1801–1815), Shygaev Nuraliev (1815–1823), Zhangir Bouquet (1823–1845). In Khanate occurred in 1836–1838 years of the national liberation movement led by Isatai Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov.
In 1841, in the khan’s headquarters first school was opened. In recent years, many researchers have noted that for the first time in Kazakhstan tended capitalist land relations.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Personal formation in the conditions of social instability”. CZECH Republic April 15–22, 2015, came to the editorial office оn 27.04.2015.