The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the Central Asia, between 39 and 43 degrees of northern breadth. The territory of the Kyrgyz Republic makes 198 thousand 500 square km., 925 km from the West on the East and 454 km from the North on the South. The general length of border is 4508 km. The highest point – 7 439 m (Pobeda Peak), the lowest point – 394 m (area Lejleksky). 90 % of territory located above 1 500 m, the average height makes 2 750 m. Borders on the Chinese National Republic, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
In total in Kyrgyzstan 88 powerful ridges, running long circuits from the west on the east. Among them world famous peaks: Pobeda Peak (7439 m), Lenin Peak (7134 m), Peak of Khan-Tengri (6995 m). The majority of them concern to a grandiose range Tien-Shan, that in translation means “Heavenly mountains”. Ridges, which tops are covered with snow even in the summer and glaciers have the name Ala-Too, that means “motley mountain”. In the territory of republic there are deserts, semi deserts, steppes, meadows, woods, bushes, bogs, mountain tundra. Eternal snows and glaciers borrow 4 % of territory of Kyrgyzstan. The snow line lays above 3600 m. Of all in territory of Kyrgyzstan 8208 glaciers, the various sizes borrowing the area 8094,5 sq. km are totaled. Object of the nature of world value is east part of Kyrgyzstan, area of Pobeda peaks and Khan-Tengri. 760 glaciers by a total area nearby 1500 sq. km are located here. Among them, one of the greatest in the world – a glacier Southern Inylchek, its area is equal 623 sq. km, length – 58,9 km. In landscape shape of mountains of Kyrgyzstan the big place is borrowed with lakes. Of all is totaled about 2000 greater and small lakes, with a total area of a surface nearby 7000 sq.km (about 3,4 % of territory of republic). 3 largest lakes – Issyk-Kul, the Son-Kul and the Chatyr-Kul. Issyk-Kul – one of the largest high-mountainous lakes of the world, the height is 1608 m, and the biggest reservoir in Central Asia It feeds 80 small mountain rivers bearing the waters with soluble salts in lake (1 liter of water contains 6 grams of salt), but any does not follow from it. Lake is looked through on depth more than 20 meters and concedes on a transparency of water only to Baikal. Issyk-Kul in translation means “hot lake”, and it means that it never freezes. The basic part of caves of Kyrgyzstan is in the south of the country in Osh, Jalal-Abad and Batken areas. The Cave Can-I-Gud (Batken area) the deepest length more than 3000 m and depth about 100 m. The deepest – Fersmana – 240 m (the Osh area). The area of Kyrgyzstan makes only 0,04 % of the area of a planet while in territory of the country 2 % of kinds of world flora grow approximately, and than 3 % of world fauna. There are more than 500 kinds of vertebrate animals, about 50 kinds of fish, 4 kinds amphibious, 28 kowtowing, about 350 birds and 86 mammals in Kyrgyzstan. The flora of republic numbering about 4000 kinds only of the maximum plants is diverse. Forests borrow the insignificant area (4,25 % of territory of republic), but have the big economic value and play a huge soil-protective and water-security role. It is protected about 4 % of territory of Kyrgyzstan. The Red Book of republic includes ten kinds of animals and plants. Among the maximum animals it is possible to allocate a snow leopard, the Central Asian otter, maral, Tian-Shan brown bear, the mountain ram (arhar) and a golden eagle. More than 1600 kinds of plants of Kyrgyzstan are useful, including more than 200 kinds – herbs [1; 2].
In connection with that 93 % of territory of the Kyrgyz Republic occupies mountains, the greatest efforts from the state and a private sector is given development of mountain tourism.
Mountain tourism – is the tourism developing or prospective for development in the future in mountain territories (in the countries and regions), an including wide spectrum of kinds of the activity connected directly or indirectly. In such understanding mountain tourism predetermines wide existential and conceptual approaches to its studying. That is, mountain tourism is not only the kind of economic activities including of some subspecies of tourism, first of all interaction of people (tourists and local population, businessmen and state employees, both between these groups, and inside of groups) and use of resources of a mountain environment and culture [2; 4].
There are following natural preconditions for development of mountain tourism in Kyrgyzstan:
– The Relief and an orographical structure
– The Climate as the factor of treatment and restoration
– Hydrographic conditions: the rivers, lakes and water basins, glaciers
Over 50 large, average and the fine companies among which are also foreign, render clients of service in sphere of mountain tourism .
Level of developing tourist-recreational resources of mountains. Kyrgyzstan as the mountainous republic, on a variety and riches of tourist-recreational conditions and resources concerns to unique regions of the world. The appeal of a natural landscape connected with mountain character of territory and high-altitude completely – from semidesertic foothill plains up to mountain-wood, subalpine and Alpine, eternal snows and glaciers – has no borders.
So, by the fulfilled techniques of scientists L.A. Chubukova, E.M. Ilicheva in Kyrgyzstan on the resort-recreational importance following high-altitude climatic zones are allocated: low mountainous (400–1000 m above sea level), middle mountainous (1000–2000) and high-mountainous (2000–2500). The areas placed above 2500 m above the sea level, for resort the purposes are not used .
The important factor essentially influencing accommodation of tourist-recreational establishments and objects, the climatic resources of mountains formed under influence of three basic elements – solar radiation, a condition of an atmosphere and structure of a relief. The maximum of solar light in foothill areas is marked in August-September (Bishkek-Оsh). The valid sums of radiation at this time make here 77–84 % from probable. (Karakol, Naryn) they are equal mountain areas of 65–74 % and their maximum is necessary for September-October. Absence, first of all, ultra-violet starvation and the raised ionization of air with long frostless period – all this creates favorable condition for accommodation of various mountain resort-tourist establishments with carrying out -and thalasso therapy.
Regional features of climate-recreational conditions and resources of Kyrgyzstan on high-altitude zones
Duration of the favorable period for development of mountain tourism (in days)
Recurrence of good weather
Central part of seaboard (till 2000 m)
Eastern part of seaboard (till 2000 m)
Mountain gorges (over 2000 m)
Middle mountain zone
Zone of Fergana
Middle mountain zone High-mountain zone
The Source: .
All analysis of existing materials testify, that optimum climate-recreational conditions in Kyrgyzstan observed in low mountainous and zones (with 1000 up to 2000) where mass rest and tourism is probably within 300–328 days in a year, beach bathing and climate-improving rest within 2,5–3,5 months. Probably here accommodation and tourist-recreational establishments for winter kinds of rest (skiing lodges with hotels, high-mountainous skating rinks tow rope)
Special place on recreational-climatic conditions the hollow which soft climate carries features “sea” and mountain simultaneously occupies in Issyk-Kul, it favorably influences to the organism of a person. The moderate temperatures with humidity of air up to 70 % do not create sensation of closeness, and a combination of significant height above sea level, high solar radiation, affinity of mountain tops with coniferous woods, eternal snows and powerful glaciers, cleanliness of air pool create favorable conditions for development of all kinds of mountain tourism.
Optimum zones for climate development (air, solar baths, lake bathing and rest) at coast of lake Issyk-Kul are its northern and southern areas within the limits of middle mountainous zones up to 2000 m above the sea level. Unique-climatic conditions for accommodation of winter kinds of mountain tourism, including mountain tourism, in a southeast high-mountainous part of a hollow are unique.
Favorable tourist-recreational, and also the climatic period for all kinds of years occupations of mountain tourism lasts in Kyrgyzstan more than 6 months (April-September) .
One of the major conditions of development of tourist-recreational system of Kyrgyzstan is a presence of the natural medical resources, being a basis of creation of a sanatorium complex. In formation of resort complexes, the great role is played with a combination of various recreational elements and favorable natural-economic conditions.
So, in republic especial value deposits of mineral sources and medical dirt on the basis of which resorts Cholpon-Ata already function, Jeti-Ogyz, Jergalan, Ak Suu, Issyk-Kul and Jalal-Abad, and also numerous sanatoria and rest houses.
On a variety and riches of types of mineral and thermal waters the Kyrgyz Republic concerns to the number of the richest countries of the world with rather favorable prospect for accommodation and development of mountain resort-tourist complexes and factories on pouring mineral waters. Here it is necessary to note, that in an extreme antiquity our ancestors aspired to use natural-recreational resources of mountains – air, the sun, medical dirt, mineral sources and many other things. So, for example, Bartold in the work marks that Jalal-Abad mineral sources were known and were used still in X century [4; 16; 20].
Within the limits of republic, it is totaled more than 130 sources of the mineral water having various physical and chemical structure and medical properties. By calculations of experts, the general prognostic stocks of mineral and thermal waters of Kyrgyzstan make 81866,2 j3/day, of them carbonic waters – 22100 ј3/day, thermal – 35300 ј3/day. These riches are located on territory of the country by non-uniform image: 42 % from all known stocks are in the south of republic, 34 % – in Issyk-Kul to a hollow, 15 % – in Internal Tian-Shang and 9 % – in Chui valley .
Many of them have analogues on known resorts of the CIS and the far abroad. However, the full information about debits sources and chinks of mineral and thermal water while is absent. Stocks are not reconnoitered yet, that complicates definitions of their economic, tourist -recreational importance. Thus, confirmed stocks make only 17 % from the general prognostic stocks of mineral and thermal waters. Openly 13 deposits of medical dirt with the general stocks nearby 5225 thousand m 3. Only 5 deposits from 13 have the confirmed stocks in the sum 573,1 thousand м3, that makes 11 % from the general stocks of medical dirt. For the further studying, revealing and development of water and other resources work in scientific and practical directions are necessary.
Except for thermo mineral water and medical dirt the republic has still unique and huge, but poorly studied potential of resources of such nonconventional kinds health resort therapy as speleo-, kymyz, -herb and honey therapy.
In mountain regions are available various and rich speleo sources, possessing high medical, cognitive and aesthetic value. By present time only within the limits of territory of the Kyrgyz Republic openly also it is studied more than 400 caves, being by nature sanctuaries. Caves meet in various high-altitude zones of the country, but the prevailing majority of the most interesting caves are placed on foothill, low mountainous and middle mountainous zones. Depths of a cave – storehouse of the most interesting history and it is a cognitive material. Among them the most interesting are “Cun-i-Gut” – a labyrinth in length more than 10 km, “Fergana”, having 240 m of depth, a cave “Kara Unkur”, “Haidarkan”, “Kadamjai” and “Ala-Myshyk”.
Alongside with development before known karstic zones, such as “Chil Ustun”, “Chil-Mairam”, “Tiuia Moiun” is researched newer: “Chatkal”, “Gulcho-Karakulja”, “Sandalash” and others. The big cognitive value also high-mountainous glacial caves in the long term. The foreign and domestic experience testifies, that the unique real way of rational use and protection of the most unique recourses is a creation of the mountain cave objects equipped for tourists.
The most suitable for accommodation speleo therapy complexes are such caves as “Chon Tuz”, “Jidali”, “Ak Turak” and “Arkalyk”, possessing a unique combination of natural-climatic factors. It is possible to treat successfully a bronchial asthma, an asthmatic bronchitis, chronic diseases of ENT-sphere, allergen skin, some diseases of lungs and other bodies.
Speleotherapy is one of the most ancient in the world of effective methods of natural treatment. It is widely used in many foreign countries – in the USA, Germany, Hungary, France, Austria, and also in mountain regions of Russia, Georgia, Armenia, etc. In Kyrgyzstan, unfortunately, there is only one clinic on the basis of hydrochloric sough of the Chon-Tuz which operates already more than 30 years. This unique a high-mountainous hydrochloric cave is in the world at height of 2100 m above the sea level. Humidity, atmospheric pressure, high ionization and microcrystallization, speed of movement of air weights in sough essentially distinguish it on quality from other known caves. So, well-known “Zakarpatye”, “Caucasian” and “Ural” speleoclinics on many parameters concede to our Chon-Tuz.
All above-stated speaks about riches of the Kyrgyz Republic natural resources for development of many mountain kinds of tourism, and needs deeper scientific research of these resources, hence, development of concrete measures on protection and their zealous use in market conditions [2; 16; 20; 25].
The SWOT-analysis. Its below-mentioned advantages, lacks, opportunities and problems have allowed to reveal the analysis of tourist production of mountains of Kyrgyzstan which lead by us.
– high aesthetic quality of the surrounding mountain environment;
– a variety of the nature, starting from high mountains up to sandy beaches of lake Issyk-Kul;
– Hospitality of Kyrgyz people;
– historical communication of the country with Great Silk Road;
– availability of services of tour operators;
– a variety of tourist rest, starting from cultural rounds up to water kinds of rest;
– riches of the Kyrgyz culture nomadic traditions.
– insufficient quality and limitation of demanded places of residing;
– discrepancy of the price and quality for rendered services and production;
– shortage of the tourist information and an explanatory material;
– bad quality of an infrastructure, communication and transport system;
– underdeveloped mechanical branch;
– lack of cultural values of settled civilizations and traditional architecture in comparison with the next states;
– ignorance of foreign languages and absence of qualitative service, especially outside the city of Bishkek;
– lack of cultural/sports actions and festivals.
– growth of the international tourism abroad;
– growth of interest to adventure tourism at the basic sources of the market;
– an opportunity of the control over development of tourism, (the poor development to existing production gives an opportunity to generate and regulate the future development);
– support of the World organization of tourism of round “the Silk Way Road” and growth of cooperation between private tour operators and public sector.
– lack of the strategic integrated plan on development of the tourism based on the deep scientific analysis;
– growth of a competition within the limits of the international market as the majority of the countries concern to tourism as to a key source of economic development;
– inconstancy of the existing market;
– problems of safety, including the international terrorism;
– deterrents of the existing economic environment and an infrastructure (a high level of the taxation, high interest rates under credits, lack of investments, slow rate of privatization of tourist objects and reforms on land tenure, corruption, etc.).
Perfection of management by mountain tourism. Last years activity on service of tourists gets typical features of branch of economy more and more. Volumes of capital investments put in it constantly grow, cost of a fixed capital increases. In other words tourism in Kyrgyzstan acts as branch – nature user makes significant demands to material, financial, to a manpower and renders essential influence on character of regional economic structure.
It is naturally, that the system having so difficult structure, should possess well debugged administrative mechanism. However now in sphere of tourist branch of the country the structure of management adequate to complexity of object was not generated yet. At the same time system character of touristic-recreational process predetermines an opportunity of essential increase of economic, social and ecological efficiency of tourism due to perfection of management.
The Government in the Kyrgyz Republic is interfaced by tourist branch to serious problems.
At first, substantially tourism is, as a matter of fact, an inter-branch and interdepartmental complex. And, hence, in the decision of separate questions of tourist branch without participation of this or that department supervising one the set forth above spheres to not manage. Such situation and the general inefficiency of work of the post Soviet state controls as a whole complicate carrying out of a uniform state policy in the field of tourism of the country.
Secondly, incompetence professionally separate state employees who make key for development of tourism of the decision and great turnover of staff, and also low paid work – are those negative factors which distract from business, from due management of branch.
In the third, in our opinion, one of acute problems is weak scientific maintenance of tourism. Practically few investment projects in research and development that considerably reduces quantity and quality SRW (Scientific and research work) in republic. Meanwhile, use of scientific potential of the country is not only determining, but even necessary for economic growth. Exaggeration prompt development of such countries as Japan will not tell, that, “new industrial” and others is based on skillful use of own intellectual resources.
As scientific maintenance of tourism it is understandable that theoretical-methodological researches and development, and the practical recommendations based on them on development of tourism in the country or in separate regions. Unfortunately, in the official state documents, concerning developments of tourism in Kyrgyzstan there is no purposeful scientific maintenance and that’s why it is as the main problem. [15; 26].
Therefore tourism in Kyrgyzstan develops in the spontaneous image, chaotically, without the scientifically-proved ways, without possible management. The analysis of development of tourism in the countries and regions of the world where it is one of leading branches of economy, testifies, that strategy of development of tourism should have strong and reliable scientifically-information base.
There are all bases to believe, that at adequate management of tourism, the period of its growth in the country or in region is maximized, and even can be accompanied by the further development of branch. Maximization of the period of growth of tourist branch predetermines its economic efficiency, ecological safety and social cultural responsibility. It is possible to fix the given assumption hypothetical graphic representations (fig. 1), constructed on the basis of materials of the analysis of long-term world practice of development of tourism (more than 50 years).
a) Cycle of spontaneous development of tourism;
b) Cycle of less operated development of tourism;
c) Cycle of the scientifically-provided and operated development of tourism
Fig. 1. Dependence of economic parameters of tourism from its ecological and social cultural consequences of negative character (or from by-effects of tourism). Q – economic parameters; I – ecological and cultural consequences of negative character (casual effects); T – time
The Fig. 1-a shows that is spontaneous-chaotic development of tourism by its effects which usually get character of negative consequences (degradation of natural landscapes, social cultural pressure among local population, etc). It will lead to the maximal reduction of the period of growth of tourism in region and can leave local population with the exhausted resources, inflation (owing to high consumer ability of tourists), degradation of traditional cultural values of local population, etc.
The Fig. 1-b, shows that at the moderate management of processes of tourism (i.e. only at one level: republican or only on state) the period of growth of tourism can be extended, but by-effects of tourist branch that can lead finally to the first script (fig. 1-a) will grow at the same time. The Fig. 1-c, shows the prospective cycle of the scientifically-provided and operated development of tourism, gives the basis to believe, that the period of growth of tourism can become rather steady and long-term.
This can be reached, for example, by means of definition of optimum, maximum-permissible tourist-anthropogenesis loadings (on landscapes, on an infrastructure of regions, etc.), the account probable negative economic, ecological and social cultural consequences and their distribution, it means that preventive measures which certainly demand carrying out of the certain scientifically-practical researches on these problems.
The above-stated three kinds of cycles of development of tourism practically coincide with three types of development of tourism in highlands and regions. The first type of development consists that development and the control of tourism over the country or region is made by external investors – the forces, aspiring to receive the greatest for it’s profit. The role of local population in development of tourism comes to naught or it is very insignificant. This type coincides with a cycle of spontaneous development of tourism (fig. 1-a).
Opposite, the second type of development of tourism does not limit potential of participation of local population in development and the control over tourism. And accordingly the huge part of profit remains at indigenous population that pushes them more likely to keep and improve all the resources which make a basis of their economic development. This type of development of tourism is adequate to a cycle of the scientifically-provided and operated development (fig. 1-c).
The third type of development of tourism in highlands and regions, which is similar more likely to a cycle of less operated development of tourism (fig. 1-b), assumes presence of the basic components of first two types. That is, here the potential of participation of local population in the organization and management of tourism is proportional to potential of external investors.
From here for an establishment of a cycle of the scientifically-provided and operated development of tourism concerning management multilevel approaches of management (the international, national and local levels, and both state, and public character) are required, first, maximization of participation in development of tourism of local population, secondly.
Hence there was a question on necessity of creation of a uniform control system which includes both the state structures, and socially-branch private associations. Functions of each component should be precisely certain and divided among themselves, and vertical and horizontal connections between them shouldn’t carry subordinate-unilateral, but logically-multilateral character [21; 23].
Now in the Kyrgyzstan, there are some objective problems which complicate an estimation of tourism and development of the scientifically-proved strategy of management and development of this complex phenomenon of economy. Following two circumstances concern to them:
First, as it is already known, the statistics on various aspects of tourism in the Kyrgyzstan, is rather limited and cannot be always used for the analysis. In fact tourism is very dynamical phenomenon that complicates its estimation. Official bodies seldom collect and not always the statistical data allowing adequately determining the tendency of development in various regions and as a whole in the country. Besides as the world practice shows, tourism is a branch with very high competition, and tour agencies reluctantly disclose the information which is important for growth of their market.
Secondly, tourism should be considered in a wide context of re-structuring of economy of Kyrgyzstan and its regions. Really, tourism can become the force bringing positive changes in mountain regions, but strategy of management by this phenomenon should be integrated not only with strategy of management by other sectors of economy, but also and with transport and other kinds of infrastructure, education and training, local and regional planning of development, welfare, ecological changes and many other parts of development.
Tourism has set of indirect influences on an environment, local culture and economy. These influences can turn back after a while negative consequences, reducing the received benefits. In general, if to think “on a global scale” tourism cannot enters into a number of forms of economic activities which can become a basis of steady development. It means, for example, that we should try to avoid as much as possible probable effects of climatic change which are consequence of distribution of hotbed gases in an atmosphere. And tourism is the great factor of pollution of an atmosphere because, promotes enormous increase in a stream of traffic-travelling movements in air, on a land and on water (planes, helicopters, trains, cars, steamships, steam-ships, etc.). And accordingly, distribution CO2 increases and the ozone cloud is damaged. Also, the increase in movements as a result of tourism will lead to additional use of such not renewed resources, as gasoline and kerosene, to pollution of the cities over flown by tourists or the regions often visited by tourists. The mountain countries as Kyrgyzstan, ecological system which are very fragile and vulnerable, can lose much that involves tourists. For example, the same tops grasping spirit covered by “eternal” snows do not become those because of already appreciable deviation of glaciers, that, most likely, grows out warming a climate, as the reason of that strengthening “hotbed effect” serves in an atmosphere, absorption of infra-red beams promoting increase by an air environment of the Earth.
Fig. 2. The mechanism of influence on the tourist market a new information method of the management based on the concept of “feedback”. Borders of the market: 1 – services; 2 – a feedback (the information received from tourists through questionnaire ); 3 – management on the basis of the scientifically-processed objective information
Further it is excessive to prove, that tourism not panacea from all illnesses of our economy. It needs the purposeful, scientifically provided management, especially at presence of the fact, that the quantity of tourists will be doubled during the following of 20 years, achieving 1,5 billion year – and from them 416 million tourists will have a rest on the Asian continent. Especially, if to consider, that the quantity of arrivals of foreign tourists in Kyrgyzstan tends growth .
Certainly, in present day Kyrgyzstan is hard to social and economic situation to define such priority measures which would be approved by all or the majority of participants of developments of tourism, not simply to find the necessary levers of influence on the tourist market as from a science, state management, and from businessmen and the more so local population of regions. Nevertheless, already revealing and comprehension of our general problems are necessary condition of advance.
The science as a field of activity, aspiring always to objectivity, is not limited only to revealing and comprehension of problems, i.e. ascertaining of the facts. Unlike other fields of activity of the person the science can show an optimum way of the decision of problems. And in a foreshortening told, it would be desirable to finish a statement new to management of tourist branch of the approach, as a matter of fact the new lever of optimum influence on the tourist market with the purpose of its steady development. This approach is based on the concept of “feedback” with application of new information technologies of management which are characteristic for any open systems.
In today’s conditions of Kyrgyzstan an effective method of management which in due course should become the optimum lever of influence on the tourist market can become application of new information technologies of the management based on a feedback. The feedback can be provided through a constant information stream from consumers’ tour service (i.e. tourists and recreants) to the main state controls by tourism. For this purpose it is necessary to conduct constant interrogation and questioning of tourists, i.e. the typical questionnaire which can be distributed at the main gate of the country on border (boundary posts, the airports, stations, etc.) should be developed to arriving tourists. And when they decrease from the country, in the same place on borders can leave already filled questionnaires. Then all these questionnaires should go to the state body on tourism (the Ministries of the industry, trade and tourism (MIT and T) where all collected information should be processed by an independent centre of science-analytical for granting the objective information to management МIТ and Tourism.
Thus, if even 20–30 % from total of tourists will fill and will leave questionnaires, i.e. the information on the rendered services, on problems during travel, etc., already it will be enough to see real blanks of the market and especially manufacturers. We are assured that volume of the information on the basis of which it is possible to receive a picture of the market, will gather, and the more so if to consider that “offended” on manufacturers of the market tourists will try to fill and leave questionnaires. Then on the basis of the received information, and scientifically-verified, objective it will be possible to influence manufacturer tour services and really to operate tourist branch with a view to its steady development.
It is necessary to note, that such plan will be even more effective if, first, to develop the electronic version of the same questionnaire and to distribute it on the Internet. And secondly, not being limited only set forth above carrying out of sociological researches on places, for example in Issyk-Kul it is necessary for a resort-recreational zone. In this case it is three methods will be mutual supply with each other, and even more objective information on the tourist market of our highland will collect.
The above-stated is schematically shown on fig. 2.
Thus, introduction in practice of management by tourist branch of the new information mechanism based on the concept of “feedback” can become the most optimum method of influence on the tourist market. Thus introduction of such plan will enable: realization of constant monitoring and improvement of quality tour service; to see blanks in an infrastructure; to receive various pictures including marketing tendencies of the market; to reduce bureaucratic barrier to investments; to improve system of gathering of the statistical information.
In our opinion, useful one is offered method of management of tourism concern: efficiency, profitability and adequacy to system, and lack are virgin questions.
Conclusions. The role of tourism in economy of highland is very many-sided: it can bring both positive and negative changes. These changes can be substantially various depending on the common level of development of the country where tourism acts as branch of economy. Developing the highlands concern to the countries first of all accepting tourists which basic part is made by tourists of the developed countries. Therefore character of the international tourist communications in developing countries is rather difficult and inconsistent.
World experience of development of tourism shows, that there is an axiom of the tourist industry which says, that the maximal success of development of any resort (or a tourist-recreational zone) depends on an effective utilization of a natural environment. One of the basic purposes should be formation of such development which supplements key positive characteristics of a mountain landscape, but does not suppress them. Approaches to research of problems of mountain tourism should be complex, including and social cultural aspects of its development and accommodation alongside with economic and ecological influences. As for improvement of social consequences and conditions, and for preservation of natural-ecological equilibrium economic mechanisms should be used.
Present time, there were number of approaches and methods of studying of tourist-recreational activity which can be subdivided on economic, geographical, sociological, mathematical and mathematic-statistical. The general level of developing various and rich tourist-recreational resources of mountains of Kyrgyzstan while remains insignificant and for their protection and rational use direct external investments are necessary. The last are possible in more favorable social, economic and legal conditions than nowadays.
Constant development tour production of Kyrgyzstan needs close cooperation of various official bodies and departments with an increasing private sector, especially in the field of maintenance with habitation and development of sights, creation of economic conditions for support of internal and direct foreign investments.
The tourist market of Kyrgyzstan is appreciated in 200–320 thousand tourists, basically visitors. Under our analysis aggregate profits of the existing tourist market of mountain Kyrgyzstan are appreciated in 50–80 million US dollar a year. 90 % from the revenue of all market of tourism provide internal and regional (CIS) markets, though their one-day expenses very low.
The present condition of tourism in republic is characterized by significant volume of a “shadow” component, in view of which share of tourism in real gross national product of the country about 6–8 %. In this connection purposeful measures on legalization of “shadow” capitals of tourist business are necessary. One of measures can become the taxation of entrance tourism as export of services.
Results of research show, that in the Kyrgyz Republic so-called mass resort-recreational tourism which probably makes economic profit more quickly, than, for example, ecological tourism strongly develops. But, the most important that mass tourism in mountain conditions is extremely unstable and short-lived as promotes degradation of an environment for short time and often generates conflicts between tourists and local population in social cultural to environment. Besides at us mass tourism can develop only on Issyk-Kul, as occurs this moment. Therefore, at present efforts of the state should be directed on uniform distribution of quantity of arriving tourists on time and in space according to available resources of regions, with the purpose of pressure decrease of tourism on the nature and an infrastructure of separate places. In our opinion, it can be reached by two ways: By the investments into other less visited regions, especially in their infrastructure; by the methods of fiscal politics.
Now there is a question of protection of tourist-recreational resources of Kyrgyzstan Mountain. The Most part from them is used spontaneously, unrestrictedly, without any account of the safe loads. Spent actions on protection of tourist resources have incidental character, are extremely inefficient and have more commercial character (periodic gathering of money for visiting). As a result, under influence of anthropogenous loadings, and also an environment already now tourist objects gradually lose valuable recreational properties. The complex of measures, which carrying out is necessary for their preservation and restoration, the main way of our opinion is hardly probable without special scientific researches and certainly investments.
Considering fragility and vulnerability mountain ecological system, we consider that the general plan of development of tourism in the highlands similar to Kyrgyzstan should be under construction on following principles:
– Maximization of profit (incomes) at minimization of quantity of tourists;
– With growth of height should decrease material capacity of tourism infrastructures.
Observance of these principles will allow not only to keep vulnerable mountain ecological system, but also to satisfy escalating needs of tourists for close contact to a natural environment.
For preservation of wild unique fauna Тian-Shain, Pamir-Alai and creations of ecological image of the country it is necessary to encourage development of photo hunting and video hunting, incomes from which are many-sided and not disposable as, for example the same mountain rams it will be possible to take a photo or remove on a video camera some times and several tourists can do at various times. And the mountain tourism, rafting and other is extreme-sports kinds of tourism can develop within the limits of tourism on routes of the Silk way though their organization connected with difficult mountain conditions and it needs considerable capital investments.
There is a sharp necessity of creation of the special organization on marketing, planning and promotion of mountain tourism. One of functions of this organization should be introduction in practice of such information technologies of management, as system constant sociological interrogation and the questioning, providing a feedback from consumers and tourists. Such system promotes the simultaneous decision of such actual problems of mountain tourism, as quality management of tourist services, marketing and the statistical account.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Development of Scientific Potential of Higher Education”, UAE (Dubai), March 3–10, 2015, came to the editorial office оn 19.02.2015.