Education in modern school is inseparably linked with intense intellectual, emotional, physical exertion that in a certain combination can lead to exhaustion, which is expressed not only in the changes of the functional state of many body systems, but also in violation of cytogenetic homeostasis. In this regard, it could be useful to search for a system of methods which can easily and fast, without cumbersome equipment evaluate various parameters of the students’ functional state, including cytogenetic homeostasis. Two groups of 10–11 year old children were examined. One group consisted of children of grammar school with advanced study of foreign language, not involved in sports, the second – pupils of secondary schools, regularly practicing athletic rock-and-roll for at least 1 year. During the examination the following aspects were examined: the profile of functional hemispheric asymmetry, the level of nervous processes mobility and the strength of excitation and inhibition, the level of school anxiety, the level of mental health and the development of fatigue. For the assessment of cytogenetic damage the microkernel test was used to detect the nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells. In both groups the following types of the nuclear abnormalities were identified: intussusceptions, kernel strangulations, microkernels, double and caudate nucleuses. The relative amount of nuclear abnormalities ( %) varied from 2 to 18, averaging to 6,88 ± 0,43. The most frequently met were intussusceptions and dual core. The dependence of the nuclear anomalies from physical or intellectual work was not detected. A moderate negative correlation between the strength of nervous processes and the relative number of epithelial cells with double and caudate nucleuses was revealed. A moderate positive correlation between anxiety and the relative number of dual epithelial cells was also discovered. Thus, the results of the study indicate the high vulnerability of cytogenetic homeostasis of children with high levels of anxiety and reduced strength of nervous processes, i.e. with reduced reserves of the regulatory systems, and, consequently, with reduced adaptive capacity of the organism as a whole. It allows, in our opinion, to come to the conclusion of the advisability of using micro-nuclear test in a comprehensive assessment of the functional state of students.