The article studies basic trends of organization-staff work in state bodies in Russia.
Transition of Russian economy to the world space, related to the sixth technological tradition leads to global changes, including correction of problems, faced by bodies of state government. Attitude towards work and employees suffers a change.
Qualification, professionalism, knowledge, and ability to create become basic characteristics of an employee. A worker not only supplies his professional qualification to employer for a fixed period of time. Person becomes a subject of professional relations, as an employee takes responsibility for his personal development. Managing such personnel defines inefficiency of the existing model of Taylor that considered industrial technologies, designed for mass production, developed distribution of labour, using a person’s knowledge and skills in a narrow specific area (profession and specialty). Evaluation of work result was based upon one’s skill to carry out a specific operation.
Nowadays a greater part of labour, including its intellectual kind, is being automatized. Informatization of the society creates completely new spatial-temporal relations. Content of work is more and more transferred to interaction not between a person and mechanism, but between people via machines. At the same time we can observe:
– Growth in productivity of monotonous labour that consists of repeated operations, decreases its part in total consumption of work. Part of professions that are not related to direct production, grows (research, development, marketing).
– New professions are created instead of the old ones, and they demand completely new competences from employees.
Robots replace accountants, cashiers, security guards, dispatchers, and many other professions in the area of management. A specific regulation of working time is being introduced. A number of employees who work outside an office at the basis of labour contract, increases  as well as a number of qualified workers from other countries, not only CIS, but, possibly, from Vietnam, India, etc. New professional standards define training specialist of 400 wide professions (Labour code counts about 7000 of them).
As it is registered by domestic literature, modern state apparatus requires increase in qualification and in decrease in quantity of personnel. According to the data of Rosstat, 793 thousand people were employed by state bodies in 2014 (decrease by 12–15 % in comparison to 2010). At the same time, total number of state and municipal officials, including members of electoral commissions grew from 1,162 to 1,548 thousand people since 2000 to 2013, at municipal level it grew 2,5 times.
Manning of federal official bodies equaled 82 % in 2013, regional – 90 %, municipal – 96 %, and monthly wage equaled 98000 rubles (increase by 36 % during a year), 36400 rubles, and 33600 rubles correspondingly. In a number of small towns officials form up to 80 % of the total number of the employed. According to institute of social policy of scientific-research university High School of Economy , number of officials per 1 thousand of people equal 70-72 in USA and France, 40 in Latvia, 33 in Italy, 25 in Norway, 18,5 in South Korea, 12 in Russia. The greatest part of officials in total number of the employed is registered in Latvia – 10 %. However, part of official government costs in state budged is much greater in Russia than in countries of OECD. The greatest part of state personnel is not skillful at modern informational technologies.
Decrease in quantity of state apparatus goes along three basic directions:
– Liquidation of unnecessary, unnatural for a country, and inefficient functions of government (according to experts, their part equals 20–30 %).
– Liquidation, unification, and removal of duplication in operations of observation-control bodies.
– Transition towards providing state services digitally, creation of single network that will link all official structures, sharp decrease in paperwork and report.
International institute of management evaluates efficiency of managing economy of different countries according to 333 criterions. The leading positions are occupied by USA, Sweden, FRG, Canada, UAE, Denmark, and Norway. In 2014 Russian occupied the 38th place – behind China (23rd place) but ahead of Brazil and India. Specific part of citizens in age of 18–64 who plan to start their own business in nearest years during 2002–2012 increased from 27,5 to 43 % in China, from 5 to 7,7 % in Finland, in equals 37 % in Brazil, and it decreased from 2,5 to 2,2 % in Russia. Part of population in age under 64 that already has a business increased from 12 to 24 % in China, from 4,6 to 6 % in Finland, it equals 15,5 in Brazil, and only 2,4 % in Russia. Monopolies, related to local authorities, suppress competition.
According to researches by Ernst & Young “barometers of business activity of G-20”, according to business support coordination, Russia is placed at the same level with Mexico, Brazil, and Indonesia, but behind China, where about 75 % of new workplaces were created due to this support. According to the level of business culture, professional training of entrepreneurs, and business environment, Nizhegorodskiy region and a number of other regions have been outlined.
During evaluation of staff potential one should consider not only coefficient of their intellectual development and analytic abilities, but also emotional intelligence – ability to understand feeling and intelligence of others, interact with them, develop their creative thinking and initiative, create efficient teams (team management). It is necessary to train staff to work in collaboration without introducing numerous positions of deputies and assistants of managers who are unable to organize systematic workflow. Additional professional training o state officials should be directed towards projective work not only in western (Institute of state management of Georgetown university of USA, Higher normal school of France), but also eastern centers.
Institute of state service in Singapore, Beijing and Pudun schools of state government in China, and others are directed towards collaboration, but not only individual leadership. It is much closer to Russian mentality.
The greatest attention is paid to modern neuroeconomy that implies revolution in behavioral economy. It studies mechanisms of making decisions in terms of uncertainty, when possibility of achieving a goal is difficult to evaluate, and rationality of a certain line of behavior is defined by collective values and preferences.
A special significance is devoted to the system of state and municipal orders that carry out the following functions:
– participation in ranging values of management objectives and means of achieving them;
– distribution of financial-budget resources during separating authorities of federation, regions, and municipal bodies (MB);
– provision of efficient workflow of state and municipal consumers of goods and services;
– standardizing of contractors’ activity, selection of the best investment-innovative projects and business-plans;
– rationalization of taxing, selection of legal form of organization and choosing head executives of contractors;
– transferring actives to property or transferring them to contractors of competitive goods in accordance with conditions of a contract.
Bodies of government must evaluate efficiency of investments considering all types of risk and paths of project financing development.
Indexes of internal profitability of a project are considered first, however, it is not enough. Bodies of state government should also consider external effect, related to profits, that a customer receives: creation of new workplaces, decrease in unemployment and crime rate, improvement in social and business capital, ecology, and health of population.
Activation of capital, including non-material actives, should become a source of investments [3, 5]. During 2000–2012 Russian budget grew almost 4 times in real expression, and capitalization of stock market grew 5 times (from 0,2 to 1 billion rubles). However, according to Morgan Stanley recapitalization of Russian companies decreased to 60 of value of their actives . It is necessary to decrease period of selecting investment projects and simplify the procedure of providing state guarantee.
A state body can’t serve as a partner to private firm as they are in authoritative, not civil-legal relations. According to the research by McKinsey, attracting private capital to state infrastructural projects cuts down costs by 20 %, risk of budget increase – by 70 %, and risk of construction period increase – by 66 %. Public sector of economy (non-commercial organizations) manages social infrastructure. Associations of users are much more efficient than state or private firms when it comes to managing forests, water, and other resources.
New area of activity for state and municipal personnel becomes development and efficient usage of new sectors of infrastructure. Infrastructure is a system of economic and non-commercial organizations and that provide services, required for improvement in their activity and efficient production, to economic subjects, located at a given territory.
Five basic blocks are outlined in infrastructure. Commercial infrastructure that includes banks and other financial institutes, markets (stock, goods, currency, etc.), insurance companies, marketplaces (wholesale markets, distribution and storage of goods), expert-consulting, legal services, audit, advertising and marketing services, and is necessary for efficient production and realization of goods and services in terms of competition.
Production-ecological infrastructure includes railway, automobile, maritime, aviation transport, highways, connection, power system (electricity, heat, gas), water supply and sewage, nature-preserving system and existed in centrally-planned economy (in opposite to commercial).
Innovative infrastructure includes fundamental science, innovative networks, metrological, optical-experimental, and leasing centers of general purpose, patent-licensing service, engineering (introductive) firms, system of training and additional training of scientific-technical personnel.
Social infrastructure consists of education, healthcare, pension system, and other social services, it obtains a special significance in economy of knowledge.
During the nearest coming years state apparatus should solve a completely new problem – carry out the greatest organization-technical re-equipment of industry and the whole economy in half-century. In 2015 it is planned to re-evaluate all industrial funds, estimate enterprises of industry, transport, and communication in order to reveal outdated main funds (they form up to 80 % of their value) and liquidate technologically-outdated enterprises, especially outdated in ecological area, via increasing taxes for outdated funds, toughening standards of their usage, buying them off by the state, etc. For certain monotowns it implies a necessity to retrain employees, develop small and average business rapidly, provide new workplaces in neighbor cities (which defines the need for highways) and other regions.
New funds should replace the outdated ones, system of reconstructing potentially-competitive existing enterprises is required . These measures will demand localization of production of foreign equipment, development of non-raw materials export, decrease in prices for long-term (10 years and over) investment credits down to 1 % plus inflation, state-private investment partnership at the foundation of implementing concessions for all types of infrastructure.
The following basic directions of economic transformation through impact of state and municipal authority are:
1. Development of small business, first of all, in high-tech sectors, creating of highly-productive workplaces. According to the data of Rosstat and Chamber of commerce and industry, during 2010–2013 over 1,5 million workplaces with salary over an average regional level were created, about 350000 – in Moscow, 240000 – in St. Petersburg, about 200000 – in Tatarstan, 160000 – in Bashkortostan, about 100000–126000 – in Krasnodar, Moscow, Sverdlov, Rostov region, about 70000-80000 – in Nizhegorodskiy and Kemerovskiy region.
2. Qualitative change in system of training, retraining staff, improving its qualification. The greater part of authority bodies personnel is formed of people of pensionary and pre-pensionaty age who are unfamiliar with modern informatics. In early 2000-s labour value in Russia was significantly lower than it was abroad. Since these days average salary increased more than 5 times (in dollar expression) and now it exceed the level of it in Bulgaria, Romania, and a number of EU countries. At the same time, incomes of executive managers exceed salary of regular employee more than 150 times (in Northern Europe and FRG – 5–10 times). Only in USA by 2015 average annual income of chief executives of corporation was more than USD 10 million – 250 times average salary.
The basic quality of modern manager is his ability to collect, analyse, and use new information, his speed of reacting to changes in the world. Narrow qualification loses its significance and is being replaced by competence – possession of a wide range that allows one to transfer knowledge from one area of professional activity to another. If a company changes its profile, its personnel should also possess the necessary competence, managing such team also requires certain competence that will base not only upon professional skills, but also individual knowledge and abilities. The existing labour market demands a person that has rare and sometimes even unique qualities within the required professional range. As practice shows that order in management is the main criterion of attracting new employees.The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Economics and management”, THAILAND (Bangkok, Pattaya), December ,20–30, 2014, came to the editorial office оn 31.10.2014.