Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

VEGETATION OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORIES OF THE WESTERN REGION OF AZERBAIJAN (IN CASE OF THE NATIONAL PARK OF GOYGOL)

Bayramova А.A. 1
1 Ganja State University, Ganja

For the last time in Azerbaijan increased interest in the development of national environmental policy. In Azerbaijan, a National Biodiversity Strategy. Created new state natural reserves, national parks, expanded existing reserves. After establishing the status of a state-level protected areas of the western regions of Azerbaijan (GoyGol National Park, Karayazi, Korchay and Eldar nature reserves). Floral biodiversity we studied over 1,200 species belonging to 471 genera and 112 families [2].

Given the vegetation protected areas of the Western regions. When typology of vegetation protected areas of the western regions of Azerbaijan (on the example of Goygol National Park), we used the principles razrabotanyaye A.A. Grossgeym [7, 8], L.I. Prilipko [10] V.D. Gadzhiev [5, 6] These authors in vegetation type united by all the formations which belong to the dominant one life form, or set of associations and formations, PhD, the unity of the dominant life forms – edificator.

Our classification of the type of complex, takes into account the location and conditions of vegetation. This approach best reflects the nature of the vegetation cover, vegetation types:

1) mountain steppes;

2) highland xerophytes;

3) shrubs and bushes;

4) forest;

5) meadows and lugastepi;

6) wetland vegetation;

7) vegetation of rocks and scree.

Land covered with forest vegetation and located on the slopes of ridges surrounding the lake Gay gel, have all the characteristics of the forests of the upper and middle part of the mountain zones of the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus ranges. These forests are mainly deciduous and consist of different types of motorcycle kovyh, hornbeam, beech, hornbeam and mixed forests.

At the upper edge of the forest in some places, especially on the western slope, dominated by forest park type low efficiency, where a well-developed herbaceous vegetation, which has in its composition subalpine elements. By leteraturnym data (2, 4, 5, 6, 7) comprising 342 species collected in the Lake Gay gel contains: trees – 21 species, shrubs – 31 species, polkustarnikov – 2 species of herbaceous stretch – 342 form. After changing the status Goygol National Park in the flora includes 643 species of flowering plants, including 487 species of perennial, biennial 23,45 annuals, tree – 9,49 shrubs, polukeustaroniki – 7 species. Meadow vegetation in Gay gelskovo National Park occupies Zone between 1600 (1700) – 3200 (3300) m asl and represents a serried groups (projective cover 75–95 %) formed in temperate soil and climatic regime.

On physiognomy, structure and floristic composition of alpine meadows and steppes are three classes of formations: poslelesnye meadows and subalpine meadows lugastepi, alpine meadows and carpets. For the representatives of the first two classes characterized by high growth, caused by a combination of favorable environmental factors, moderate temperature, soil moisture, light, intense solar radiation. Alpine meadows and carpets with supportive role of all the factors set relatively low temperature, adversely affecting the growth ecobiomorphs. As special studies on the marshy meadows and wetlands in Azerbaijan can specify works A.A. Grossgeim [4], D.A. Alieva [1], D.A. Aliyev, Hajiyev V.D. [2], L.I. Prilipko [4], Flora of Azerbaijan [13], E.M. Gurbanov [4] and others, which are characterized by high structure Tsenotichesky swamps and made a number of provisions. Shhagapsoev S.H. [10] describing the vegetation of the Caucasus, indicates that the species inhabited the highland marshes are among the Pleistocene migrants. He believes that the relic is associated marshes on the genesis of a glacial process. In the floristic composition of swamps he distinguishes two groups of plants: 1 – largest group of migrants glacial, 2 – less than a large group of species formed from the forms that are not met in over vast Euro-Asian continent.

According A.L. Reyngardta [11] more species of marsh vegetation belong to the Pleistocene ice age period. Therefore, he believes swamp landscapes relic. Overarching alpine plants carpet the study area are: Carum caucasicum, Campanula tridentata, Veronica gentianoides, Erigeron alpinus, Alchimilla sp. Potentilla crantzii etc.

Sparse vegetation cover on the mountain xerophytes backgrounds are four formations:

1) friganoidno – shiblyakovaya (Rhamnus pallasii, Capparis spinosa);

2) tragakantnikovo – grass (Astragalus marschallianus);

3) tragakantnikovo – motley (Astragalus aureus, A. caucasicus);

4) chebretsovo – fescue (Thymus daghestanicus, T. collinus).

Shrubs and bushes in various proportions are found in all plant composition gruppirovon where there though young but developed soil. Principal place of their distribution are less dry slopes of the northern and northwestern exposures at the lower boundary of the forest. Many of them (Rosa spinosissima, Spiraea crenata, Cotinus coggygria, Alnus incana, etc.) developing here a long time, have a zonal character. Patchy form thickets polydominant structure. Rock vegetation formed many species belonging to different life forms, but having xerophytic properties, and represented as sparse groups, as well as certain types of small shrubs, leaf cushions and herbs. By spurs, river gorges and mountain peaks rocks take frontal shape, the place looks a terraced planes. At first glance they seem utterly lifeless, devoid of soil cover. Formation of vegetation on the rocks, stones and ruins is in close connection with the processes of nutrient and soil environment [12]. Rocks are characterized by a peculiar environmental conditions, adapting to whom settled here plants produce special fittings – tearproof roots, vegetative organs with lots of veins and developed transpiration device pillow form. Complexes rocks kamennikov and accumulation of rock fragments at the base and the bottom of the mountain slopes (Osipov), unconsolidated deposits of detritus (placer) and milder forms of relief in the form of a cup-shaped depressions, gullies, Losinj, narrow saddles are landscape-based elements limiting heights. They only in late spring is slowly released from the melting snow, from which flow down the icy waters calm. At lower levels of water melting snows, rain and springs merge into swift, violent origins, and eroding propilyvayuschie rock slopes and narrow valleys forming outside vertices [5, 11]. Rock vegetation up to the alpine meadows represented by the following species: Valeriana alpestris, Aster alpinus, Dianthus caucaseus, Sempervivum caucasicum, Silene pygmaea, Campanula petrophila, C. Saxifraga, C. Ciliata, Draba bruniifolia, D. mollissima, Saxifraga adenophora, S. exarata, on wet rocks: Cystopteris fragilis, Asplenium viride, Draba incompta, Saxifraga moschata.

Calcareous rocks cause specific difference: Campanula alliariifolia, C. tridentata, Jurinella moschus, Asperula alpine. Of pressed shrubs are confined to the rocks: Rhamnus depressa etc. Structure rock vegetation varies with altitude. It becomes more ornamental species. Among them, the brightness of different colors Draba siliquosa, Betonica nivea, Campanula saxifraga etc. In the alpine zone above and rock vegetation is gradually replaced by species better suited to the harsh alpine climate subnival belt. On scree and rocks, located from 2500 to 3200 m above sea level. m flora composition represented 183 flowering species. Significant role in settlement lifeless rocks and scree subnival zone Lesser Caucasus play lichen groups. Tsenotichesky role lichens increased by barren rocks and scree highlands of the Lesser Caucasus, occupying large spaces ( 9).

As special studies on the marshy meadows and wetlands in Azerbaijan can specify works A.A. Grossgeim [4], D.A. Alieva [1], D.A. Aliyev, Hajiyev V.D. [2], L.I. Prilipko [4], Flora of Azerbaijan [11], E.M. Gurbanov [5] and others, which are characterized by high structure Tsenotichesky swamps and made a number of provisions. Shhagapsoev S.H. [10] describing the vegetation of the Caucasus, indicates that the species inhabited the highland marshes are among the Pleistocene migrants. He believes that the relic is associated marshes on the genesis of a glacial process. In the floristic composition of swamps he distinguishes two groups of plants: 1 – largest group of migrants glacial, 2 – less than a large group of species formed from the forms that are not met in over vast Euro- Asian continent. According A.L. Reyngardta [8]. Dominating this formation is Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz, Caltha palustris L. Floristic aspect of their stand: Equisetum ramosissimum Desf., Juncus articulatus L.; impurities found: İnula britannica L., Carex transcaucasica Egor., Agrostis gigantea Roth, Caltha polypetala Hochst., Rubus caesius L. involving the edges of the formation Salix pentyandroides A.Skvorts., Ulmus glabra Huds. etc.

In Agstafa Kazakh and woodland on the banks of the Kura-moistened meets Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Meth. accompanied by herbs: Equisetum telmateia Ehrh., Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Hall.fil.) Koel., Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott., Nepeta mussinii Spreng., Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy, Rubus buschii Grossh. ex Sinjkova, R.caesius L. et al, these same species are found on the floodplain swamps formed along boundaries constantly moistened. These kinds of marsh- riparian vegetation are confined to the valleys and lowlands. A whole series of wetlands represented at lower steep slopes. On older ones formed in the subalpine zone formation – sedge -grass marsh. Its dominant feature is: Blyumus compressus (L.) Pauz.ex Link, Catabrosa aquatica (L.) Beauv. B as components involved: Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Rauschert., Glyceria notata Chevall., Poa palustris L. Caltha palustris L., Carum carvi L., Trifolium fontanum Bobr., Plantago major L.

References

  1. Аliyev D.А. Flora and vegetation of Azerbaijan. – Baku, 1969. – 52 p.
  2. Bayramova А.А.Floristic diversity of specially protected territories of the Western region of Azerbaijan. – Baku: Science Publishing, 2013. – 323 p.
  3. Gurbanov E.М. Flora and vegetation of Atropatena. – Baku: Science Publishing, 2007. – 240 p.
  4. Grossheim А.А. Flora of Caucasus, vol. 1–7. – Baku, 1939–1967.
  5. Hajiyev V.D. Analysis of flora of the mountain part Minor Caucasus. Abstract of conference. – Baku, 1971. – Р. 23–25.
  6. Hajiyev V.D. Materials about of vegetation of Maral gol of Minor Caucasus // Transactions of AAS. Biol. Scien. – 1971. – № 5–6. – Р. 3–8.
  7. Grossheim А.А. Vegetation of Caucasus. – Moscow, 1948. – Р. 15–264.
  8. Novruzov V.S. Florogenetic analysis of mosses of Major Caucasus and problems of their protection. – Baku: Science Publishing, 1990. – 321 p.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «The problem of international integration of national educational standards», France (Paris), March, 14–21, 2014, came to the editorial office оn 11.03.2014.