In presented article is considered spectrum of the professional problems of the teacher- defecting, which successfully dare by means of introduction in scholastic process active technology education and education.
In relationship with strategy of increasing quality pedagogical formation particularly actual is a problem scientifically-methodical ensuring the training and refresher courses specialist. Many years pedagogical science developed educational technologies, allowing actuate cognitive activity trained and provide the qualitative assimilation of the programs. However, training student high educational institutions and presently доминирует reproducing activity, functioning to memories on thinking. To change the situation, representatives of the high educational institutions [2; с. 34] have paid attention technology educational in professional educational institutions. Technologies – not simple collection of the methods of the education student, but specific mini – a pedagogical system, having purpose, forecasted result, strategy as direction of the motion educational process participant leads to result. The Strategy dictates the selection of the methods and logic of their use, in particular, in pedagogical activity future teacher – defecting.
On sort of its activity specialist- defecting it happens to contact with children, having breaches of the development, with their family, often unhealthy climate, with colleague, a part from which has not a special defecting of preparation, and, as a whole, with society, ambiguous referring to people with breaches of the development. The spectrum of the professional tasks, which solves defecting. All this necessary to take into account when preparing future teacher- defecting. The most actual are questions of the introduction active technology education and education specialist. Use the separate active methods of the education in preparation student- defecting.
One of active methods is a lecture-dialogue, which allows the teacher to put before student questions for comprehension own subject of the experience. In particular, on one of the first occupation on any defecting to discipline (depending on curriculum) teacher can offer student for comprehension following questions:
– have you experience of the contact with people with breaches of the development?
– as, on your glance, attitude society to people with breaches of the development?
– as state policy in respect of these persons?
Depending on budget of time questioning can be organized in writing, its realize verbally, but on the second and the third question possible to organize the debate since there are miscellaneous standpoint beside student on this problem. The Form debate can be different: each of students voices and argues its standpoint or students are divided on groups on sign resemblance position and together motivate the argumentation etc. Frank discussing the questions on occupation helps the student is weakened, forces be conceived about each person and about attitude to each, teaches to be tolerance to one another. Except this, answers allow the teacher to judge about particularity given contingent student: as their general private about folk with breaches of the development as their personal attitude to given categories of the people, obliquely possible draw a conclusion about dominant motive of the choice given to professions.
Analyzing answers student several flows, we came to output that there are stereotypes in their consciousness in perception of the persons with breaches of the development. Subsequent to M. Bityanovoy we stereotype as firm image or firm belief about what – or phenomena’s, folk, event, characteristic representative of one or another social group . It is installed that stereotypes, either as habits, are pawned in infancies. The sound children, as a rule, do not face with people with breaches of the development and with their problem, do not speak of them with its encirclement, with parent, have a no possibility to show to such people compassion and participation. Or have an inadequate experience of the contact with people given to categories. Thence in perception student important such extremities: person with breaches of the development – a person, having aside from psychic problems, else serious physical defect, ugliness, untidy and repulsing appearance, they have not, with their standpoint, person of the prospects of the development. At people with not brightly expressed problem (the speech defect, small reduction of the vision, spectacles) are not perceived as people with breaches of the development and requiring professional help and person of the human participation. So much it is important to form the professional glance beside student, bring up identical understanding to essence of the problems of the development, degree of their manifestation and possibility to compensations and correction, enable the student to reveal in itself need for compassion, in participation, in effective help and ability to be useful more weak.
For this purpose much it is important to introduce the student with regularity of the psychic development of the people with deflections of the development, sharpen their attention on idea, voiced by G.TROSHINYM and creative designed by L.S. Vygotskim, about that that psychic development of the people same regularity will comply with breaches, as normative development. Theoretically and practically significant is an analysis existing theory to compensations [4; с. 23]. All are a theoretical positions necessary to illustrate the real example of the achievements of the people, having that or other deflections in development: fates O.I. Skorohodovoy, E. Keller, K.E. Ciolkovskogo and others About life’s of these people can tell teacher itself, having offered student to analyses their life way with highlighting factor, promoting their creative activity. Effectively also attract student themselves to preparing the messages and report about life’s of the people, having that or other deflections in development. In the course of this functioning aside from extension and revision of the knowledge’s about folk with breaches of the development, about possibility and condition to compensations, students gain else very important scholastic of the skill: select the necessary literature on problem, analyses and generalize information, form the messages, increase the experience of the public appearance. The Negative stereotypes of the perception of the people with breaches of the development bring about that that before and during the practical persons students feel discomfort, awes and insecurity in their own power. These problems partly leave to account of theoretical preparation in the field of psychological particularities of the people with breaches, particularities of their education and education, special subject methods. However else much it is important to develop beside student professional significant communication quality: intuition. For development these quality necessary to introduce in occupations such active methods, as training. The Modern special scientific literature offers the broad range like training, which has shown its efficiency. For instance, exercise «Blind and guide» helps the student at least approximately to feel and understand that feels the person, deprived visions. Besides, this exercise allows bringing up the feeling of the confidence to classmates.
One more active methods is a business play. For instance, in course «Psychology-pedagogical diagnostics and consultancy» can be organized business play «Psychology-physician-pedagogical commission», in the course of which students perform the role one of the specialist commission. The Students beforehand get acquainted with procedure of the functioning real PMPK, with functional duty of each specialist, prepare the diagnostic material, find in literature history developments child with that or other deflection for analysis and stating the diagnosis in the course of plays.
The Scholastic courses «Special methods of the teaching» enable for broad use such active methods, as modeling fragment or integer lesson and коррекционных occupation with the following analysis and рефлексией offered project. Thereby, active methods allow effectively preparing the specialist-defecting to the following creative and productive professional activity.
1. Bityanova M. When life loses lightness // 1 Sentyabrya. – 2000. – 27 May.
2. Bondarevskaya E.V. The Theory and practice larval-oriented by obrazovaniya. – Rostov-on-Don: the Publishers Rost. ped. un-that, 2000.