Last several decades there is a decline of the specialists’ professionalism in Russia. Mostly it is connected with political, social and economic changes in the society where the reconsideration of the basic values accepted previously by social consciousness took place. The analysis of the modern work practice shows that the big amount of cases of the incompetence are observed in different spheres because of the lack of an essential attention to formation of necessary professional value aims.
According to D.N. Uznadzeaimis determined as a whole dynamic state of the subject, the state of readiness to perceive future events and to make actions that are caused by subject’s need and appropriate objective situation. So, «readiness» is understood as a base of selective subject’s activity, an ability to integrate quickly and effectively into the situations . According to A.G. Asmolov, who is a representative of the activity approach, aimis «subject’s readiness and propensity that occurs in the process of the anticipation of some definite object and provides a stable and purposeful nature of the activity in relation to the object» .
The notion of value is important for understanding the concept of professional and value aims. In most studies value is identified with the importance, it is regarded as an object or phenomenon that is significant for people, and it has useful properties, i.e. it is associated with the ability to satisfy people’s needs. Value is represented as an ideal, aspiration, purpose, meaning, it implies cognitive, spiritual and practical subject’s relation to the object, to the evaluation of the object compared with the ideal . It is determined by the aims which prescribe human behavior and include norms, standards and models, the thing on which the subject orients in its cognitive and practical activity. And in this case it determines the direction of person’s activity, expresses the orientation on social self-actualization of the man.
Taking into the consideration these notions, we can understand the professional value aim as a whole dynamic state of the subject of the professional activity determined by his readiness for realization of his professional activity with the orientation on significant characteristics of the activity which define its effectiveness, an ideal, standards and models in professional behavior.
Student’s formation of the professional value aim, in the process of his learning, based on the notion of its component structure.We have proved the four components structure of the professional value aim: cognitive component-the human’s idea about the meaning of the professional value aims; motivational component – his motivation to the realization of professional value aims in the professional activity; emotional component-his positive attitude to the professional value aims; functional component – the presence of professional capacities allowing to regulate the professional behavior based on the value base.
The allocation of the functional component as a fundamental in the professional value aim was based on the idea about the competence as: a «switched on» self-realized capacity to the practical activity, to the solving of the problems which is based on acquired knowledge, abilities, skills of the student, his learning and life experience, values and interests, which he has developed as a result of the cognitive activity and educational practice (A.V. Barannikov); integrate quality of the person, which includes the constellation of cumulative knowledge, abilities and experience allowing it to integrate into some certain sphere in the role of successful subject of the certain activity (N.V. Kuzmina, V.M. Shepel).
At the same time the competences are considered as: normative demand to the educational preparation, the realization of which must guarantee his competence in certain activity. Taking into account the functional character of the competence its ‘nucleus’ is ability (A.V. Barannikov, V.A. Ermolenko, A.F. Zeer, I.A. Zimnya, A.M. Novikov).
The modeling of the system of the competences, which are learnt by students, connected with the basis of the abilities that guarantee their readiness to the professional activity with the orientation on the input professional value aims.The connection of the professional value aims with the competences is based on the functional approach realized according to the psycho-pedagogical ideas: about the «washing out» principle of the consciousness circle which implies that the consciousness has to be developed in the activity (A.N. Leontiev); about the activity, that determines the development of the motivations and human’s values, determining the common aim of the vital activity; about the motivation as a source of the activity that has a function of motivation and gumming; about the values that not only operate the actions, but serve as aims themselves or play the role of the meanings of the human life (I. Kant); about the kinds of the activities that influence on the rules of the human’s mental development, i.e. his consciousness; about the personal sense as one of the characteristics of the consciousness and its value in the development of motivation to the activity (A.N. Leontiev); about the sense as an expressive attitude of the activity motive to the direct action aim and changing of the action sense with changing of its motive (L.M. Fridman).
Hence determining, in its constellation, the aims of the learning the professional value aims specify the component staff of the competences (which are presented as abilities), providing their formation.
On the base of the systematic, functional, competence approaches we offered the technology of creation of the pedagogical assurance of the students’ professional value aims formation which includes the following stages: analytical – the exposure of the professional activity structure; purposeful – basis in the context of each kind of activity of the professional value aims as the aims of learning; simulated – the modeling of the professional competences, the constellation of which determines the readiness of the specialist for the realization of the professional activity with the orientation on determined professional value aims; projecting–projection according to these competences of the content, methods and forms of teaching, determination of the principles of teaching organization; organizational – determination according to the principals of teaching organization of the content of the teacher’s activity at different stages of the teaching process; reflectively-evaluative-evaluation of the effectiveness of the pedagogical assurance creation with the aid of tracing of the students’ professional value aims readiness on the base of certain criteria and indices; correctional –correction of the pedagogical assurance.
The basis of professional value aims is realized according to independent kinds of professional activity. At the same time different ideas of its system can be used: some scientists place emphasis on the selection of certain kinds of behavior and people’s experience (I.A. Surina), the other think the emphasis of the environment on them is priority (V.M. Ivanova), and some others believe that values are determined not just in the inductive generalization experience process, but by means of the initial comprehension of idealized objects used as means of their construction, then comes their experienced checkup and transformation into a real value (U.S. Vildanov, H.S. Vildanov, F.S. Faizullin).
The system of competences which responses to the based professional value aims determines the demands to the results of specialists’ preparation and serves as a base for projecting of the education content and teaching methods, definitions of the principles of educational organization.
On the one hand it is based on the position of the competence approach which consists in that the constellation of competences determines the content of education (A.V.Barannikov). On the other hand during the selection of teaching methods we take into the consideration I.V.Zimnya and A.A. Verbitskii’s points of view, that all the competences are social: according to the way of formation in cooperation of teachers and students; according to the content because they show the essence of cooperative practical people’s activity; according to the way of functioning in society. It demands projecting, organization and realization mainly the cooperative subjects’ activity of the educational process, in which in one stream of activeness the adjusted teaching and pedagogical aims are reached. According to the principles of teaching organization the content of teacher’s activity is built at the different stages of education: projective, technical and reflective.
As long as the result of teaching is readiness of certain professional value aims which a student has to have, the evaluation of the effectiveness of created pedagogical assurance is made on the base of dynamics determined basically on corresponding to the components of professional value aim: cognitive-shows the fullness of ideas about the specificity of professional activity and the role of professional value aims in it; emotional-evaluates the students’ attitude to the professional value aims; motivational-shows the activity orientation of personality, characterizes the stability of motive system to the realization of professional value aims in its professional activity;functional – evaluates the level of students’ competences which response to the certain professional value aims in the situations of professional teaching and designed professional activity.
As a result we determine three levels of criteria realization according to the character of their manifestation in the situations of professional teaching and professional activity:
1. Low level which is characterized by: low student’s competence about the professional value aims as a state of readiness for effective professional activity, inability to explain their influence on the success of different kinds of professional activity (cognitive criterion); his neutral attitude to the professional value aims (emotional criterion);unstable motivation system of implementation of the professional activity according to the professional value aims (motivational criterion); his rare demonstration of the competences corresponding to the professional value aims in the teaching and professional situations of professional teaching and activity (functional criterion).
2. Middle level which is characterized by: partial student’s competence about the professional value aims as a state of readiness for effective professional activity, an ability to explain the influence of some professional value aims on the success of different kinds of professional activity (cognitive criterion); positive student’s attitude to some professional value aims (emotional criterion); partially stable motivation system of implementation of the professional activity according to the professional value aims (motivational criterion); his partial demonstration of the competences corresponding to the professional value aims in the teaching and professional situations of professional teaching and activity (functional criterion).
3. High level which is characterized by: the full student’s competence about the professional value aims as a state of readiness for effective professional activity, an ability to explain the influence of professional value aims on the success of different kinds of professional activity (cognitive criterion); positive student’s attitude to the well-founded professional value aims (emotional criterion); stable motivation system of implementation of the professional activity according to the professional value aims (motivational criterion); his stable demonstration of the competences corresponding to the professional value aims in the teaching and professional situations of professional teaching and activity (functional criterion).
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Science and education pressing questions», Russia (Moscow), May, 21–24, 2013, came to the editorial office оn 29.04.2013.