The competence challenge, as the individual property, has recently being received the constantly increasing attention. So, this challenge is, practically, presented the certain interest and for the present study. That’s why, we’ll open some of the scientific prerequisites in its considered context. So, for example, the «competence» category essence is acted one from the fundamental prerequisites. The word «competence» (in Latin – adequate, capacity) is revealed, as «having jurisdiction; knowledgeable, well – versed in the particular area» in «The Dictionary of Foreign Words». Then, the competence – is possession of the competence, the possession of the knowledge, having permitted to be judged on something. The competence (in Latin – belonging by the right) – is the terms of the reference; the challenges’ range, in which the particular person has the knowledge, his gained experience . It, moreover, should to be mentioned, that the scientists and the scholars have considered this category still in the 70-es years of the XX-th century, however, not in the psychological and pedagogical subjects and the disciplines, but only in the political science, That’s why, Onikov L.A., and Shishlin N.V. such notion, as «competent» (in Latin – suited, as applicable) reveal then, as, firstly, with knowledge, well versed in the specific area; secondly, the rightful, authorized to be decided, to be done something .
In the domestic science, the profound and competence study, as the psychological and pedagogical category, has been begun, since the signing time by Russia, in September, 2003, the Bologna Declaration, having developed the full respect idea for the diversity of the cultures, the languages, the national systems of the education, and the University autonomy . As a whole, today, the graduate model development, wherein at the different educational grades and the levels, is one of the areas, the ideas realization directions of the Bologna process.
So, E.P. Belozertzev, for example, notes, that, under the international organizations influence, at present, the attempts to be constructed such a model are currently being implemented. At the same time, his remark is quite true about the need for the notions distinction between the following: «the vocational qualification», «the key qualifications», «the core competencies». In the first case, they are referred to the knowledge, the abilities and the skills, which are necessary for the employee to be performed the special job. In the second one, – the general vocational knowledge, the abilities and the skills, the capacities and the personal qualities, which are needed to be worked in the field of the vocational groups. As for the key competencies, that underneath Belozertzev E.P. understands the cross – cultural and the cross – sectorial knowledge, the skills, the abilities, which are necessary and required for the adaptation and the productive activities in the different groups of the vocations and the vocational communities .
So, the competence approach is begun to be used and at the additional education system study. Shamova T.E. Ilyina E.V., Podchalimova G.N., having designed the ADE, and they emphasize the bound definition of the specialist – professional’s «core competencies». By their reasonable opinion, the «key competencies» – this is the «hub» notion, having reflected the various and the different constituents of the ADE components content (e.g. the axiological, the motivational, the reflexive, the cognitive, the operational and technological, the ethical one, the social one, and the behavioral one), its ideology «from the result», the learning outcomes (e.g. the increase in the knowledge, the skills and the abilities, the experience of the vocational and personal self – development, the creative activity, and the emotionally and the value relationship), the integrative nature of the content selection source – the various spheres of the culture and the human activity. So, the authors, moreover, emphasize and the basic, the universal character of the key vocational competencies, they single out the character features: the multi-functionality, the over – subject and over – discipline, the interdisciplinary, the intellectual capacity, and also the multi-dimensionality of the mental processes involved .
The competence notion is considered also in the domestic psychology. It should to be noted, that the foreign psychologists associate the competence with the ability to be performed some task, to be done something; in the linguistics – the possession of the basic, the abstract rules of the language . So, the Russian scientists – psychologists (e.g. Sukhov A.N., Bodalev A.A., Kazantzev V.N., and etc.) reveal the «social and psychological competence of the individual» concept. It is presented itself the special knowledge on the society, policy, economy, culture and etc. At the same time, the authors note, that the socio – psychological competence, by its content, is resembled the «world outlook» notion, and it is allowed the individual to be orientated in any social situation, to be made the right decisions, and to be achieved the set goals. The antipode, in this case, is acted the incompetence, illiteracy, ignorance, and etc. It has been established by the authors and the social and psychological competence structure, including the following types of the competences: communicative, perceptual, in the area of interaction of the life, empathy, vocational, caste, vocational and criminal, the Government officials and etc. .
Sukhov A.N., Bolalev A.A., Kazantzev V.N. pay their special attention to the need to be distinguished the social and psychological competence from the psychological readiness and the vocational skills. If the social and psychological competence essence is consisted in the relevant knowledge, the attitudes and the stereotypes, then the psychological readiness and the vocational skills are included in themselves not only the knowledge, but also the skills, the ability and the other components. This notion, by the scientists’ and the scholars’ reasonable opinion, is directly related with the «self – concept» theory, in which the mental, psycho – physiological, and socio – psychological ones are distinguished. So, the last one is regulated the conduct and the activities of the individual, it, moreover, is prevented its further deformation, it is made the positive effect upon the reflection adequacy of the actual reality (Ibid).
In the Russian modern pedagogy, many scientists and the scholars are being turned to the challenge and the competence category. Thus, having developed the regulatory – legal support of the education, Fedorova M.Y., practically, introduces the «competence» term and rightly connects it with the specific powers, some educational Institution functions . So, Ivanov D.V. considers the competence, as the result of training. At the same time, he rightly distinguishes the «competence» and «authorities; competencies» concepts: in the first case – the characteristic of the person, in the second – what the person already possesses. These and other competencies are formed the special groups:
1) the skill and the ability, independently, to be defined and to be achieved their significant purpose;
2) the skill and the ability to be worked, efficiently, in the interests of the common goal; and
3) the skill and the ability to be led and managed;
4) the skill and the ability to be equipped, comfortably, their personal life and in the particular social environment .
So, the idea of the competence – based approach is being developed as well by Serikov V.V. The competence, V.V. Serikov notes, – is the property of the individual, that is, practically, existed in the quite different and the various forms: as the highest degree of the skill efficiency, as the form of the personal self – realization, as the definite result of the individual’s self – realization, as the form of the abilities’ manifestation and the others. The competency – this is such a form of the knowledge, the skills and the scholarship existence, in general, which is led to the personal self – realization fulfilment, to the student’s determination of his place in the world . So, the research is carried out and the competence challenge, as well in the field of the environmental education. One from its aspects is paid much attention by V.A. Ignatova and S.B. Ignatov, having studied the special features and the peculiarities of the ecological and the legal competence of the students and moreover, having examined it, in the environmental culture context .
Thus, the theoretical analysis results have been allowed us, in the general way, to be formulated the working definition of the «social and ecological competence of the person» notion. It is, practically, presented by itself the special knowledge on the «nature – society» system, in each of its component, the interaction peculiarities and the special features between them, and the predicative condition. The social and environmental competence, by its content, is, practically, reminded the «world outlook» concept: the scientific knowledge system on the interaction between the society and the nature, the metabolic processes in the «society – nature» system, the nature management, the labor activity, as the interaction way. So, the individual’s views and beliefs in relation to the nature, and the behavior regulatory bases in the nature have been included in the SEC structure. This is allowed for the person to be focused on any social and environment situation, and to be made the right decisions on the natural potential use, and to be achieved the set goals.
Thus, today, there are all the opportunities to be explored the new aspect of the personality competency challenge – the social and environmental one the in the science knowledge. In this connection, there is the need to be addressed a number of the research tasks: the nature and the structure clarifying of this kind of competency, its specific structure, the process, and the formation conditions, etc.
The work is submitted to International Scientific Conference «Fundamental research», Dominican Republic, April, 13-24, 2013, came to the editorial office 28.03.2013.