The present paper’s aim is to be established the differentiation research challenges bases in the students’ social and environmental education system. For all this, the theoretical methods, first of all, the analysis and comparison of the scientists’ and scholars’ achievement in the field of the psychology; the abstraction, the generalization, and the conclusion formulation have been used by us.
So, the complex content of the social and environmental education, its process peculiarities and the special features are required and the special conditions of its further implementation. One of these conditions and its ways, in our view, is supported the differentiated approach. So, we’ll recall, the differentiation in the «Dictionary of Foreign Words» (e.g. in Latin – differentia) is considered, as the division, the dismemberment, the whole bundle on the various parts, the shapes, and the levels. And in «The Russian Thesaurus Dictionary» «to differentiate» is meant to dismember, to distinguish the dissimilar facts, the phenomena at the reviewing or studying something. «The Dictionary of the Russian Language Synonyms» is identified the differentiation with the delimitation, the demarcation, and the division [11; 9; 12].
So, the differentiation phenomenon is practically studied not only at the general theoretical, but also at the concrete and scientific level. In the current research context, the scientists and the scholars – psychologists achievements are practically presented the certain interest on this challenge. We’ll discover the entrenched positions in the science of psychology.
The differentiation is, primarily, connected with the psychological differences study not only between the individuals, but and also between the groups of people, the causes and the consequences of all these differences. And the special area of the scientific and the psychological knowledge has already been formed – the differential psychology, which had been launched at the beginning of the XX-th century in the works of V. Stern, F. Galton, A. Binet, A.F. Lazursky (Lewis Carroll) and the other researches. For all this, the diagnostics main method in the differential psychology has been tested, but main question on the reason for the differences, it did not give the correct answer. Currently, in addition to the testing, the quite new approaches and the methods are being used, though, as the experimental, well as the mathematical ones, having used the new information technologies .
From the modern domestic psychologists, this challenge is paid much his attention by Shevandrin N.E., rightly having noted, that at the students’ group formation the two fundamental processes have already been observed: the differentiation and the integration. So, the differentiation is practically manifested in the differences occurrence between the children on their individual identity qualities, the prestige, and the status in the group . So, the differentiation phenomenon is practically investigated in the neuroscience and in the psychophysiology; it is usually connected and associated with such phenomenon in the psychology, as the discrimination threshold – the differential threshold, it is included in the diagnostic procedure and the methodology (e.g. so called the differential and diagnostic technique), having proposed by O. Weininger in 1986; it, moreover, is required the further development and its consideration of the psychological and pedagogical principles and their bases in the selection process of the learning profile [1; 8].
So, it is obligatory to be addressed and to be considered the differentiation challenge in the pedagogical and the educational psychology, that the psychological essence of the individual and the differentiated approaches is seen in the teacher’s ability to be taken account of the children’s individual psychological characteristics, peculiarities, special features, and the differentiated approach to them. Having applied some work’s form, as the scientists and the scholars stress, it should be necessary to be taken into consideration a number of the psychological factors: the temperament, the further progress in their studies and the performances, the strengths and the weakness of the learning activities, the student’s development level, the nature of the thinking, the interests, the relation to the subject, the outlook, the interpersonal relationships in the classroom [2; 5].
So, the foreign authors (e.g. A. Reber and et. al.) usually operate with such concepts, as: the differential validity, the diagnostics, the psychology, the reaction, the fertility, the conditioning, the reinforcement, the inhibition, the extinction, the counting, the limit, the growth, the stimulus, and etc. . So, the certain interest is presented the differentiation phenomenon, in the context of the challenge research of the integral psychology, having considered by K. Wilber, on the basis of the analysis of the pre-modern, the modern and post-modern sources . The psychology’s historical aspects, the man’s views, the differences between the people, since the Enlightenment Epoch and to the end of the of the XX-th century, are being examined by the well-known and the prominent British scientist and the scholar R. Smith. The author is devoted the special place on the presentation origin challenges of the individual differences of the people, the identity challenge in the theory and the practice, the relationship of the individual and the social communication . So, the differentiated approach is being considered and is being applied in the study of the individual’s various challenges (e.g. Kjell L., Ziegler J.), the intuition challenges and its significance in the human life (e.g. Myers D.), the differential emotions theory (e.g. Carrol E. Izard) [15; 6; 3].
Thus, even the preliminary psychological analysis of the differentiation challenge condition is practically allowed to be emphasized its basic factors, the lines of study and in the socially and environmental education system of the studying youth. The main factor – are the students’ individual differences, having manifested in the different and various aspects, in particular, the anatomy and physiological, the personal, the socially and economic, the pedagogical and educational ones. So, in connection with this, the efficiency of the students’ socially and environmental training and its study directions are largely determined, namely, by the selected factor and its constituent parts and the components. Thus, the deeper conclusions – are the further study subject.
Thus, having summed up, we‘ll note, that the differentiation phenomenon is being continued to be interested by the scientists and the scholars, having allowed to be solved the specific challenges, to be predicted the status of the different and the various studied systems. The psychological science achievements in the differentiation challenge solving, in their turn, will be contributed to the individualization challenge study in the process of the socially and environmental education of the studying youth .
The work is submitted to International Scientific Conference «Fundamental research», Jordan (Aqaba), June, 9-16, 2013, came to the editorial office 01.04.2013.