The adaptation, resilience, and physical performance efficiency challenges are occupied the central place in the modern sports, especially in the soccer, for which are characterized not only the huge amounts of the training and competitive physical activities, but also their combination with the hypoxic, exothermic, and the powerful psycho-emotional impacts. So, this is usually accompanied by a lot of the surge of the overstrain and the overexertion, the different organs and the systems injuries and the diseases (e.g. Graevskaya N.D., 1969; Vysochin Yu.V., 1974, 1980, 1989, 2001, 2002; Meyerson F.Z., 1981; Carpman V.L. and et. al., 1988; Meyerson F.Z., Vovk V.E., 1990; Polishkis M.S., and et. al., 1998; Shamardin A.E., 2000; Valeev N., 2000; 2002).
The obvious deficiencies of the Soviet and the Russian cocker players’ training system can be traced over the past several decades. On this basis, the clear need is evident to be found the fundamentally new approaches for the efficiency improvement of the cocker players training.
So, the soccer can be characterized, as the activity with the changing conditions of the actions fulfillment, the variable carrying out by the muscular work power at the intensive large amount processing of the extrasensory information. For all this, the physical activities intensity is practically ranged from the moderate to the maximum level during the game. This, moreover, is characterized by the permanent combination of the active actions and the corresponding operations with the brief and short – termed periods of the relative rest (e.g. Suchilin A.A., 1997; Solopov E.N., 1998; Shamardin A.E. and et. al., 1999). Thus, in the soccer, as in all types of the sports, the main criterion for the training system efficiency this or that training system, is considered to be the final result, or the competitive activity success. So, the athletic performance sportive result is practically depended on the many factories: the level of the general and the special physical, technical, tactical, and psychological preparedness of each soccer player in separately and the team, in the whole, that is, the generalized (e.g. integral) of the functional state condition and the functional possibilities of the organism’s all the systems, but, most of all, the central nervous and the neuro–muscular systems (e.g. Vysochin Yu.V., 1989; Zolotarev A.P., 1997; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P., 2000, 2002, 2010; Braginsky A., Golomazov S. and at. al., 2001; Berezantzev A., Davydov D., 2002; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P., Rahma E.M., 2003; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu. P., Chuev V.A., 2007).
The modern soccer is different by its steady increased tensions of the training and the competitive activities (e.g. Shestakov M.M., 1995; Suchilin A.A., 1997; Shamardin V.N., 1998; Shamardin A.E., and et. al., 2000; Lyukshinov N.M., 2003). So, in this regard, the need is constantly increased for the radical improvement of the soccer players’ training quality, which it is dictated the need to search and find, and finally, to put into the practice more efficient organizational forms, means, and the necessary methods of the educational and training process (e.g. Zolotarjev A.P., 1997, 2000; Lyukshinov V.N., 2003).
So, the extensive scientific research is, simultaneously, conducted in the different and the various directions. First of all, this is the efficient means and the methods further development of the general and the special physical training and, moreover, the soccer players’ physical performance efficiency increase at all the stages of the sportsmanship formation (e.g. Sperling K.A., 1974; Zonin G.C., 1975; Kirillov A.A., 1978; Terentev V.F., 1995; Sarsaniya K.S and et. al., 1999; Zaitzev A., Leven V., 2000; Shamardin V.N., 2000 and et. al.).
However, the attention has been drawn to the rather stereotyping approach in all these challenges solution. So, in the overwhelming majority of the studies and the researches, having devoted to the general and the special physical training, having aimed at the further development of the speed and power, the power qualities, the speed, the agility, the speed and the overall endurance and etc., are, mainly, used the whole variety of the physical activities and their combinations. At the same time, up to the present time, the large experience in the use of a number of the non – traditional means has been accumulated in the various types of the sports (e.g. the midlands, the altitude chamber, the hypoxic, the hyperthermic effects and the impacts, the special breathing exercises, the biofeedback techniques, the active self–regulation and the relaxation tricks, and etc.) in the sports training system. So, all these means are impacted and the influenced on soccer players’ human body and the organism have been little studied, and, obviously, so, therefore, they are not almost used in the soccer. The myorelaxation or the muscle relaxation was appeared to be the least explored and studied in the soccer players’ training system.
We have not met the works in the analyzed literature on the soccer, except for the laboratories research by Yu.V. Vysochin (e.g. Vysochin Yu.V., Alloy L.M., Morozov Yu.A., 1979; Vysochin Yu.V., 1988; Vasquez O., Vysochin Yu.V., 1993; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P., 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P., Chuev V.A., 2007), concerning the special relaxation training of the soccer players. At the same time, it is quite well – known that the myorelaxation or the muscle relaxation, in particular, the skeletal muscles relation rate is no less significant quality, having characterized the neuromuscular system state and the human organism functioning possibilities state, than the contractile muscles characteristics. So, it is quite impossible to be overstated the relaxing muscles functions value in the sports and the labor activities.
Thus, the skeletal muscles relaxation rate is the especially significant one. The study of this challenge has been devoted to this subject of several dissertational theses (e.g. Visochin Yu.V., 1974, 1989; Azbakieva H.A., Shin N.S., 1978; Junayd B.A., 1984; Azhishchenko A.A., 1987; Boldyrev Yu.V., 1989; Levenkov A.Е., 1988; Abovyan T.Zh., 2000; Dzhungurova N.V., 2002; Denysenko Yu.P., 2007). The positive effect of the specific exercises, having improved the skeletal muscles relaxation function, on the central nervous system, the visceral organs and the systems activity, the blood circulation rational types formation, the movements coordination, the speed, the endurance, the technical skill, the growth of the special physical health and the athletic performance efficiency at the most different kinds and the types of the sports activity have been proved in them. The researches, having proved the leading role of the muscles relaxation speed in the sportsmen’s organism immediate and long – term adaptation mechanism to the large and great physical, the hyperthermal stresses, the resilience to the physical overloads in the mechanisms, the overvoltage prevantage, the traumas and the diseases, and as well as in the mechanisms of the host defense of the human organism from the extreme impacts, and the athletes recovery have been especially significant (e.g. Vysochin Yu.V., 1974, 1980, 1988, 2001, 2002; Devyatova M.V., Vysochin Yu.V., 1980; Vysochin Yu.V., Denisov A.A., Lukoyanov V.V., 2000; Vysochin Yu.V., Denysenko Yu.P., 2003, 2011).
So, the age formation regulations and the functional state development of the central nervous and the neuromuscular systems, having played the leading role in the mechanisms of the special physical performance efficiency and the progress of the sports results and the athletic performance efficiency, as well as in the further formation mechanisms of almost all the sports – important qualities of the soccer players have been appeared to be even less studied.
Therefore, the main objective, of our many – year researches, having stated in the Monograph book, the experimental study of the age – related regulations patterns of the anthropometric data development, the functional state of the central nervous and the neuromuscular systems, the individual and personal development types, the functional activity of the physiological mechanisms of the soccer players’ human organism adaptation and the protection from their physical overload have been outlined in it.
It should to be noted, that this Monograph, practically, is the first systematic complex study of the functional state age dynamics at the soccer players’ central nervous and the neuromuscular systems, at the age from 9 (e.g. 108 months) up to 35 years (e.g. 420 months), which was permitted to be received a number of the absolutely new scientific facts and data. Firstly, it has been established, that the CNS inhibitory processes and the skeletal muscles relaxation rate are made considerably greater contribution to the progress of the soccer players’ sports results, in comparison with the excitatory processes, their maximum force, and the muscles contraction rate. Firstly, it has been proved, that all the parameters, having reflected the anthropometric status, the central nervous and the neuromuscular systems state, the long – term adaptation types, the injuries and traumas appearance probability and the power of the protection physiological mechanisms, have their characteristic age dynamics, which is divided into three main types. First experimental evidence has been proven, that the age of 14–16 years is the most critical for the young soccer players, and it, moreover, is required the special methods development of the sports training at this age.
The work was submitted to International Scientific Conference «Innovative medical technologies», Russia (Moscow), May, 21-24, 2013, сame to the editorial office on 29.04.2013.