The East Kazakhstan oblast possesses all the necessary resources for both domestic and international tourism development. One can increase the efficiency of the available tourist potential utilization by means of ecological, cultural-informative, beach, Alpine skiing and business tourism development. It makes the basis of the creation of the tourist product competetitive both in Kazakhstan and international markets.
The backgrounds for such a product development are: favorable climatic parameters, availability of water and balneological resources, the variety of recreational landscape of the region, unique museum complexes of international importance (such as commemorative complexes of Abai, Shakarim, M. Auezov, F. Dostoyevsky) as well as distinctive historical cultural heritage, as a great many of civilizations are of Altai origin and valuable artifacts were found as a result of excavations carried out in the region.
The available potential implementation is possible on condition of the systematic approach to sorting out the problems hindering the tourism development, the most urgent of which are:
a) administrative barriers (time-consuming procedure of getting the permission for entering frontier zones and registration of foreigners);
b) inefficient tourist product merchandising in the international market;
c) insufficient funding;
e) absence of the tourist infrastructure meeting the international requirements;
f) absence of coordination of intra- and inter- industry activities on tourism infrastructure development matters;
g) inefficient utilization and rather low quality of tourism managers and professionals training.
The issues enumerated can be successfully sorted out by means of tourist cluster formation in the region. The advisability of such a cluster creation is backed by the fact, that according to the World Tourist Organization estimation, tourism influences 32 branches of economy either directly or indirectly and contributes to the infrastructure development both of the state and its regions, and each workplace created in the tourism industry causes from three to five workplaces appearance in other industries.
As the global experience shows, the potential of the cluster, which is a stable territorial industry-specific partnership of the interconnected organizations, due to the synergistic effect is higher than the sum of potentials of all its elements. Such increase appears as the result of cooperation and efficient long-term utilization of partners´ capacities, combination of cooperation and competition. The companies benefit from the possibility to exchanges experience and reduce capacity and circulation costs as well as to employ one and the same services and suppliers.
For the purpose of the tourist cluster efficient functioning and development, it is necessary to carry out the following tasks:
to carry out the complex scientific research with the object of thorough inventory and economic estimation of the nature potential of the region, evaluation of the possibilities of the industry infrastructure development harmlessly for biodiversity in recreational areas;
to develop tourism infrastructure;
to enhance innovative component of the tourist companies activity and, therefore, increase of their competitiveness and efficiency;
to attract extra investments to the tourist industry for reconstruction of the operating tourist facilities and creation of new ones.
to develop entrepreneurship in the field of the tourism;
construction and reconstruction of museums, commemorative complexes, architectural monuments, putting in order the most frequently visited historical sites;
to carry out active advertising and informative campaign aimed at formation of the image of the oblast and merchandising of the tourist product in domestic and international markets;
to improve the system of training and re-training of the tourist managers having good command of foreign languages (English, Chinese, Turkish).
These tasks will be successfully accomplished on condition of enhancement of the mechanisms of the tourist state regulation and support.
The major priorities of the tourist cluster creation in the East Kazakhstan oblast are:
the development of the income tourism on the basis of the unique tourist recreational zones utilization as well as the factor pd Eurasian historic development of the country, multinational, multi-confessional and multicultural character of the Kazakhstan society, its values, traditions, cuisine and arts;
the development of the domestic tourism by means of creation of inexpensive comfortable facilities able to meet requirements of the different categories of the domestic consumers of tourist services (Alpine skiing resorts, beach tourism development resorts), and also by advertising of history and culture of the Kazakh and other ethnic groups;
overcoming of the unawareness of the tourist potential of the oblast by carrying out of the active image policy. For that purpose, it is necessary realize the development of the virtual tourism as the way to attract real tourists to the region.
The major participants of the tourist cluster are: tourist companies, companies providing accommodation and catering services, transport companies.
One of the main condition of the tourism development id road and driveways construction, providing accessibility of the tourist facilities of East Kazakhstan, creation of the roadside infrastructure including construction of the campings equipped with telecommunication devices. Herewith, it is necessary to focus all your efforts on the most popular tourist destinations and areas such as recreational areas of the Bukhtarma Lake, the Sibinskiye Lakes, the Alakol Lake, and the Katon-Karagay National Park.
Within the scope of the automobile cluster which is being created on the basis of «Asia-Auto» JSC, it is advisable to establish an off-road vehicles leasing company.
Taking into consideration the long distances from the oblast center and Semey city to many of the tourist destinations, and for the purpose of their transport accessibility, it is necessary to establish and develop small aircrafts companies. You don´t need to construct new airports; it is enough to reconstruct those available in many of the rayon centers.
The extra participants of the tourist cluster are sport facilities; cultural establishments; guides; various tourist instructors; souvenirs manufacturers; mass media; municipal and household services providing companies; trade institutions (stores, markets, leasing companies); communication and telecommunication companies.
The cluster mechanism of the tourism development requires complex development of the recreational areas. Thus it is necessary to stimulate the development of the relevant participants of the cluster - industrial and agricultural companies, producing food, clothing and all the other necessary goods.
The creation of the tourist cluster will lead to the formation of the competitive tourist recreational industry in the East of Kazakhstan, providing not only satisfaction of the demand of the Kazakhstan and foreign consumers for the tourist recreational services, but also significant contribution to the social economic development of the region by means of the revenue side increase of the local budget, investment inflow, the increase of the workplaces in rural and distant parts of the oblast, the population health improvement, preservation and efficient use of the cultural-historic and natural heritage.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Priority directions of development of a science, technologies and technics», Italy (Rome-Florence), April, 10-17, 2012, came to the editorial office оn 22.03.2012.