Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE RESEARCH OF REGIONAL MARKETS OF LABOR FOR YOUTH WITH THE HELP OF COORDINATION METHOD

Vishnevskaya N.G.

The article is devoted to questions of the regulation of regional youth labour markets. The necessity in the research of regional markets of labor for youth in the system of coordinate ‘unemployment-tension´. The coordination method of typologisation of regional markets of labor for youth was offered.

The problems of youth employment, development of mechanisms for its regulation, both at federal and regional levels, assume ever greater importance in modern conditions. Taking into account the qualitative characteristics of young people, forming a special segment of the labour market, one can affirm that the problems of youth unemployment are different from the problems of unemployment of other groups of population. So, young people is, on the one hand the most mobile, able-bodied and promising, but on the other hand poorly socialized and under-productive part of the country´s labour force.

In this regard, the prior task of state bodies and institutions is creating the optimal conditions for self-determination of every young citizen, which would provide him stability of social status, real chances to receive education and work, that meet his professional standards.

A special responsibility for the regulation of youth employment rests with the regional authorities, as each region has its own specific laboгr market. In addition, this issue requires particular flexibility and control in the emergency response mode, which can be done especially effectively only in the provinces

Despite the large number of scientific works on youth employment and unemployment, a lot of theoretical and methodological aspects of this question are not well studied. Points of view on this problem require further study too. There are lots of programs, that touch the problem of youth unemployment in varying degrees, but the development practice of consolidated, comprehensive programs to promote youth employment has not yet become stable. As a consequence, it is also important to replenish the scientific tools of theoretical and practical research on the problem of regulation of regional labour markets of youth under present conditions.

Youth unemployment contributes to increasing of disparities in regional labour markets, which ultimately leads to a huge socio-economic differentiation of regions. Unfortunately, the programs conducted in the regions usually lack the proper system in the development and implementation, many of them do not have sufficient scientific basis, often have a declarative nature and do not reach their goals.

In this regard, the relevance of the further development of scientific bases of regulation of regional youth labour markets and practical tools of struggle with youth unemployment remains high.

Analysis of indicators of the youth labor market indicates that the condition of youth is far from optimal, and the development of specific measures to overcome youth unemployment is required. Moreover, regional specificities of youth labour markets must be taken into account in developing of directions to promote youth employment.

In order to develop measures aimed at promoting youth employment, we have distributed regions of the Russian Federation on the indicators of the youth unemployment level and the tension on the labour market (the number of unemployed per vacancy) in the system of coordinates. Point of origin corresponds to the average Russian level value of youth unemployment and the average value of a tension in the labour market.

Thus, the regions of the Russian Federation were distributed in four groups:

  1. the low level of youth unemployment - the low level of the tension (the low type of youth labour market);
  2. the low level of youth unemployment - the high level of tension (the mixed type by the tension of youth labour market);
  3. the high level of youth unemployment - the low level of tension (the mixed type of unemployment of the youth labour market);
  4.  he high level of youth unemployment - the high level of tension ( the high type of youth labour market).

The low type of youth labour market is regarded as the most favourable.

The mixed tension on the type of regional youth labour market is notable for limitedness of jobs.

The mixed type of unemployment of the youth labour market is characterized by a low tension on the labour market and by the high youth unemployment. This indicates that there are plenty of jobs, but for some reason the employer does not want to hire young people.

The higher type of the regional youth labour market is particularly complex and tense. To this type, first of all, belong the youth labour markets of the North Caucasus. The problem of youth unemployment in these regions, exacerbated by such events as drug addiction, shadow employment, ethnic conflicts, and the development of radical religious movements.

Typology of youth labor market by the coordinate method

Type of youth labour market

Region

Low

Belgorod Region, Kaluga Region, Moscow Region, Ryazan Region, Tver Region, Tula Region, Yaroslavl Region, Moscow, Leningrad Region, Novgorod Region, St. Petersburg, Krasnodar Territory, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Orenburg Region, Penza Region, Chukotka Autonomous District

Mixed by tension

Bryansk Region, Vladimir Region, Voronezh Region, Ivanovo Region, Kostroma Region, Lipetsk Region, Smolensk Region, Arkhangelsk Region, Vologda Region, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Tatarstan, Kirov Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Samara Region, Ulyanovsk Region, Chelyabinsk Region , Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kemerovo Region

Mixed Unemployment

Kursk Region Tambov Region, Volgograd Region, Rostov Region, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Udmurtia, Saratov Region, Tyumen Region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District, Irkutsk Region, Novosibirsk Region, Tomsk Region, Kamchatk Territory, Primorye Territory, Amur Region, Sakhalin Region, Jewish Autonomous Region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District

High

Orel Region, Republic of Karelia, Republic of Komi, Kaliningrad Region, Murmansk Region, Pskov Region, Republic of Adygea, Republic of Dagestan, Republic of Ingushetia, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Republic of Kalmykia, Republic of Karachai-Cherkessia, Republic of North Ossetia - Alania, Chechen Republic, Stavropol Territory, Astrakhan Region, Chuvash Republic, Perm Territory, Kurgan Region, Republic of Altai, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Tuva, Republic of Khakassia, Altai Territory, Transbaikalia Territory, Omsk Region, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Khabarovsk Territory, Magadan Region

To the high type belong also the majority of youth labour markets in subjects of the Siberian Federal District. The most serious situation is being formed in the northern areas, where difficult climatic conditions, inadequate transport links, high tariffs on transportation, great territory remoteness hinder the development of industry and, consequently, the job creation and labour mobility.

This method of typology of youth labour markets is called the coordinate one.

Thus, the analysis shows that the labour market, even against the background of low unemployment rates has a lot of problems. Being the most vulnerable group under any adverse changes in economic conditions, young people are able in the state of the long-term unemployment. And the present economic crisis confirms this conclusion. Therefore, the implementation of a thought-out public policy on regulation of youth employment is always urgent in the Russian society. The analysis shows that the most important thing in this issue is developing a regional policy on regulation of youth employment, proceeding from a location of the region in the coordinate system: unemployment - tension.