Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

REALIZED TRANSITIONS TO ISSUE OF SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN FORESTRY OF JAPAN AND FINLAND

Mazurkin P.М.

Wood production group ranking. On a modification of fractional structure of raw wood and semis wood production group can be divided under the following preferability order:

1) sticks - is large tree stem parts;

2) saun wood - is longitudinal sticks parts;

3) cauls, in which factions of xyloid substance as wood partiсles of chip, shredding (repeatedly crushed chip) and (or) particle (including cooms as elements of stratified on a part on fibrils particle wood) are used;

4) paper, including a carton, paper pulp and so on, that is group of wood production, in which the wood fibrils and their pieces are used (therefore area of raw maintenance extends for limits of a growing wood, including sclerotic parts of agricultural and wild plants).

This ranked number of wood production groups is classified on a physical indication of a diminution of elements from tree stem (entire tree length), its parts (timber or merchandise as functionally certain timber) up to fibrils from sclerotic any plant kind cells. For want of it first two groups of wood production relate to integral wood massif, and third and fourth groups - to the crushed wood.

The less fractional structure of raw wood, the more industrial possibilities of use by the cut down trees as by activest component of wood exploitation. Therefore paper production magnification and production decrease of cauls, saun wood, furthermore sticks, is the main tendency of forestry in all over the world on nearest 50 and more than years (we heuristically suppose, that this tendency of development will be expanded technically and technologically in all countries up to an extremity XXI centuries, and then there century of a heavily wood replacement by other kinds of artificially created materials will come, however use of raw wood as renewed source will not be stopped never).

Each group since magnification of number (or decrease of fractional wood structure in finish products) has the higher status.

Features of wood cauls. The wood cauls have appeared by the extremely successful person in-vention. They have appeared then, when in many countries oldgrowth with straight timbers having high-quality wood have become extinct. Besides caul volume dynamics is less connected to sticks dy-namics. This circumstance for wood exploitation normal substantiation, will allow correlating wood caul production volumes to national wood square, instead to sticks volume (table 1).


Table 1

World dynamics of wood plates, m3 

Caul import

Caul production

Caul export

Finland

p

p

p

Sweden

p

p

p

Japan

p

p

p


In USSR, and then in Russia all wood products were compared to sticks production volume. However the sticks import was not taken into account, as it is not characteristic for our country (there are nearby no countries with large wood arrays), and the more so fact that the significant prepared sticks share is removed abroad without additional processing, was not taken into account.

Therefore correlating of production of wood cauls, and furthermore papers and carton, to one cubic prepared or exported wood meter does not receive an inclusive sense. Besides in production of wood cauls are used not only refuse wood from sticks production and buck of it on sawn wood, but in addition resources from other plants are as well involved. In this connection the correlating of pro-duced wood caul volume to one cubic prepared wood meter (exported from woods, delivered to the consumer etc.) is methodologicalally correct.

It is best to correlate wood production to one wood hectare (of ground plots relating to wood fund category). But we shall be still far on production management from raw wood from a present condition of Sweden and Japan.

From a middle of the 70-th years of the last century Sweden behaved under the new wood ex-ploitation doctrine reducing actively production of cauls. Therefore wood caul export volumes from Sweden are also decreased. For want of it the wood caul import was sharply enlarged from other countries, that is wood cauls, as in the beginning sticks and saun wood, became only by one from va-rieties of initial raw.

The cauls concern to more high level of raw and semis - they consist not only of enriched wood (after barking and decay removal, flour assorting and other technological innovations). They contain also the organized in new fashion ready forms of the future items (plastics, tiles, dimensions for sup-ports, draft details of cabinet-work furniture and so on). The price of such product in the world market sharply will increase on a comparison with fire chore and balances.

Japan was also conducted the similar strategy since middle of the 70-th years of the last ХХ century. That said it behaved more precise in decrease of board export. Therefore Japanese strategies rather approach for our subjects of Russian Federation with resort and recreational woods, and also having a set of national parks and reserves.

Wood caul circulation trends. The statistical equations are of the form (import, production and export of wood cauls):

- Finland

f (1)

f (2)

f (3)

- Sweden

p (4)

f  (5)

f (6)

- Japan

f  (7)

f (8)

f (9)

Thus, three groups of wood production (sticks, saun wood and the wood cauls) already deter-mine appearance of forestry for each subject of Russian Federation, and it concerns also to well fo-rested territories. All subjects of federation, without dependence from a woodiness level, receive those or other long-term behaviour variations. And everyone will receive the powerful incomes of fo-restry, in particular from the leasers as the wood plot proprietors.

Paper and carton dynamics. In the beginning of XXI century production of high technology products from wood fibrils becomes a priority direction, and it can be partially displaced by a 2050 year only by production from a wood powder.

Practically anyone saun wood and even wood cauls can be replaced by production group as a paper and cardboard.

Advanced wood production group. By the beginning of XXI century this group of wood pro-duction is most broad on the consumer possibilities. Basically, paper and cardboard can replace all previous groups, converting them in semis that is in more enriched raw wood.

We should be taken into account this fact for want of construction wood and agricultural national program for
2010-2040 years, conscious annually increasing the forestry transformation plans on territories of Russian Federation subjects in the fourth wood production group party. For want of it wastes agricultural and plant-growing production recycling will have all a growing share in raw material for manufacturing a paper. In deficient on wood regions of country it is necessary to enter capacities almost completely using sclerotic parts of agricultural and other plants (a cane, bush, heath plants, garden waste and so on).

Handling materials from wood fibrils. World dynamics of those countries, which carry out the realized national wood square growth strategy (only 31 countries), on three processes of handling paper and accompanying its wood production from wood fibrils, is indicated in table 2.

In all over the world paper and carton are fairly considered as wood high level production. Therefore world generally on this group of wood production develops rhythmically and equally for very small wave perturbations.

Application of fibrils, including the field of production cauls (hardboards), allows essentially expanding area of handling, by connecting in fibril production not only wood, but also any plants in-cluding vegetative fibrils.

Such countries, as: Germany, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Finland, France, Switzerland, and partially Japan (export have significant wave perturbation) execute most precisely process triad of handling production as «import - production - export».

Russia actively adjusts exponential growth of all three processes of handling paper and carton. However the tendency of production recession of a paper and carton by a 2010 year is already appreciable.

In all over the world paper and carton are fairly considered as wood high level production. Therefore world generally on this group of wood production develops rhythmically and equally for very small wave perturbations.

Application of fibrils, including the field of production cauls (hardboards), allows essentially expanding area of handling, by connecting in fibril production not only wood, but also any plants including vegetative fibrils.

Such countries, as: Germany, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Finland, France, Switzerland, and partially Japan (export have significant wave perturbation) execute most precisely process triad of handling production as «import - production - export».

Russia actively adjusts exponential growth of all three processes of handling paper and carton. However the tendency of production recession of a paper and carton by a 2010 year is already appre-ciable.

Despite the interdiction by a management of country and not recognizing by the Soviet economists of cyclical regularities (such as crises and downturns of capitalism for USSR economy are not possible), import and export of a paper in USSR are developed with wave perturbation, increasing on amplitude. And production naturally was indignant up to downturn in an USSR disorder extremity. In the total experience of USSR is only knowledge, how it is not necessary to operate by wood exploita-tion in a part of handling paper and carton.


Table 2

World dynamics of paper and carton, t 

Paper import

Paper production

Paper export

Finland

p

p

p

Sweden

p

p

p

Japan

p

p

p


In Russia it is quite possible to align and to accumulate production by volumes of competitive in the world market kinds of paper production. For this purpose the experts on high technology wood technologies should explicitly study experience of such countries, as Germany, Italy, Canada, Portugal, Finland, France, Sweden and simultaneously to adjust issue of domestic papermachines.

Trends of handling paper production. The statistical equations are of the form (import, pro-ductions and export of a paper and carton):

- Finland

f

f

f

- Sweden

f

f

f

- Japan

f

f

f f

f

Simultaneously ever since adjustment of forestry on all said four groups of wood production it will be necessary to pay the special attention on production fifth group. The fact is that a little who pays attention to shops of wood powder, scattered on territory of Russia and producing raw material lot for production of explosive substances, for example, trotyl. These shops should be saved, and it is possible to produce from a wood powder at the same enterprises very much plenty of production kinds useful to growth of economy to Russia.


 

The
process

Wood square and production group

Wood square,
ths. ga

Sticks, m3

Sawn
wood, m3

Wood
cauls, m3

Paper and carton, t

Import

It digests on conces-sions

Russian woods, in particular in Kare-liya

1

2

3

4

Production

5

6

7

8

9

Export

No, It protects the woods, and

country completely has turned in artificial wood plantings

10

11

12

13

Fig. 1. Finland (dynamics of a wood from 1961 till 1994, wood production
from 1961 till 2004)


Only the import of Finland forestry is stable. Also the oscillatory perturbation because of reaching a limit of growth on wood square is observed. Besides the gradual comprehension to transi-tion as in Sweden happens. But, in difference from it, the growth rates of sticks dimension are much lower than growth rate of wood square. Therefore probability of cardinal changes in forestry is high (import from Russia has perverted wood policy of this country). Country concerns to the second group in a world structure [1].

The stability of woods and processes of wood exploitation in Japan is observed on production rates of all production groups, except for wood square growth. By a 1965 there was a realized turn to sticks production volume decrease, by a 1970 - saun wood, and after a 1975 - wood cauls. Because of high recreational values of wood arrays the growth rates of sticks production annually are reduced on a comparison with wood square growth. Country concerns to the fourth group.

Finland. Main advantages of forestry in Finland are following (fig. 3):

1) retardation of sticks production growth rates from wood square increase rates. Sticks production is noticeably lower than a level of a 1961 (reason is clear, it is happens from woods of Karelia and other Russian Federation subjects);

2) Country long since paid attention to sharp production magnification of a paper and carton, and also best quality in all over the world (the reason are lost opportunities of Russia, where base for processing bad quality and deciduous wood is absent; the Finns buy up our birch wood and balances at a low price).


The
process

Wood square and production group

Wood square, ths. ga

Sticks, m3

Sawn
wood, m3

Wood
cauls, m3

Paper and carton, t

Import

It digests on conces-sions

woods in Asia Southeast countries

14

15

16

17

Production

18

19

20

21

22

Export

No, all national woods as

natural parks

23

24

25

26

Fig. 2. Japan (dynamics of wood from 1961 till 1994, wood production from 1961 till 2004)


8 

Fig. 3. The graphs of relative wood production dynamics and wood
production in Finland


The sharp gain of production of saun wood also is connected with cheap Russian sawlog, and the decrease of sticks production volume gives less refuse wood. Therefore wood caul production growth rates are rather insignificant.

Therefore next question is quite natural: what will Finland do for want of technological in-crease in Russia? The answer is clear: the Finns will by all forces brake our movement in production of a paper and carton. It will be exhibited in dictatorship for sale of papermachines and appropriate equipment by Russia.

Unique path is shaping of an own wood mechanical engineering in all groups of wood production, even in the beginning on basis of Finnish furnishing and bodily on purchases of their machine plants. At the expense of raw wood policy it is necessary for consequent 10-20 years to acquire con-trolling interests of all near-border self-contained paper mills and other major concerns.

As well as on the boundary with China, all near-border with Finland self-contained paper mills should become Russia property.

TReferences

1. Mazurkin P.M. Wood and agricultural Russia and world dynamics of wood exploitation: scientific issuing / P.М. Mazurkin. - Yoshcar-Ola: MarGTU,
2007. - 334 p.


The article is prepared and is published for want of to 3.2.3/4603 МОН Russian Federation grant support.