The systematic studying of grammatical interference in the domestic linguistic began in the early sixties of XX century with the works of U. Rozencveig and L. M. Uman (U. Rozencveig, L. M. Uman, 1962). At the material of russian-french bilingualism authors examined the origin and the specific of morphological interference.
The critical survey of grammatical, mostly morphological, interference was presented in the works of U.A. Jluktenko (U.A. Jluktenko, 1974).
In the literature there were also elucidated some aspects of syntactical interference. Authors of the majority of works give consideration to interactions of concrete languages generally at the level of separate syntactical categories - syntax of word combinations, the order of words, different types of subordinate clauses.
The questions of linguistic interference at the material of Russian and Abkhazian-Adyghe languages were first risen at the end of fifties and at the first half of sixties of the XX century in the works of the professor N. B. Ekba (N. B. Ekba, 1963; 1975;1993), and later at the material of national-russian bilingualism in the researches of Z. U. Blyagoz (Z. U. Blyagoz, 1977), R. N. Klychev (R. N. Klychev, 1985), M. H. Shhapaceva (M. H. Shhapaceva, 2005) and others.
Interference become apparent everywhere, where exists the difference between the systems of mother tongue and learning language. These differences consist in:
1) presence identical linguistic phenomenons, for example, both in the Russian and Abazin there are verbs in the past completed and past incomplete time;
2) presence of linguistic categories, which are character:
а) only for Russian language (category of gender, syntactic connection of agreement etc);
б) only for Abazin language (preverbs, postpositions, classes, grammatical category of possessive case etc).
The interference actively becomes apparent in pronunciation and word usage. In some Abazin children´s speech there is an accent, which arises because of overlay of phonetic system of mother tongue to Russian. For example, there is no positional reduction of vowels in Abazin language, that´s why Abazins pronounce unaccented vowels very clear. In modern Abazin language the status of phoneme has only two principal vowels: "a" - of lower rise of middle row, which in compare with Russian vowel "a" is pronounced more openly, but more narrowly, and more short (irrational) "ы". Remainder vowels, which nowadays are used in Abazin language (и, е, о, у), correspond new formations and still they are not self-sufficient phonemes. They are used in borrowed words or parallel with the diphthongs, from which they were appear.
There is a difference between the pronunciations of consonant in two languages. Thus in Abazin at the end of the word voiced consonants are not deafened, and dull sounds are not vocalized. In Russian speech of Abazins we see the same thing. «In the phonetic system of Abkhazian-Adyghe languages, there are absent pointed vowels "е" and "и" as the independent phonemes. Besides, in these languages palatal character and solidity of consonants don´t depend on position of consonant in the word - palatal are palatal in any position, solid are solid in any position, too" (R.N. Klychev, 1985). In Russian language the phonematic shape of soft and solid sounds has another character. Therefore, in Russian speech of Abazins mistakes, which are connected with positional indifference of language to opposition solidity-softness, arise very often. It was noticed at the end of thirties by one of the founders of phonology by representative of Prague phonological school N. S. Trubeckoi. He said: "Listening to somebody else´s speech, while the analysis of audible we involuntarily use usual for us "phonological sieve" of our own mother tongue. So far as our "sieve" is provided to be unsuitable for somebody else´s language, in so far as so many mistakes and misunderstandings arise. We give to the sounds of foreign languages incorrect phonological interpretation, because they are let through a "phonological sieve" of our mother tongue" (N. S. Trubeckoi, 2000).
In the sphere of vocabulary more frequent are mistakes in use of words, vocabulary volum of which are not coincide in studying languages. Thus, to Russian words приехал, пришел, прибыл in Abazin language corresponds only one word дгIайтI; класть, ложить - ыквцIара; брать, взять, получить - гIахвра; отвезти, отнести - гара; война, сражение, ссора - айсра; резкий, острый, звонкий - цIара; сладкий, вкусный - хъгIа и т.д.
Interference becomes apparent at all levels of language, including the syntactic level. In this work the tasks of interference are examined at the material of word combinations of Abazin and Russian languages.
In conditions of abazin-russian bilingualism interference is conditioned by large quantity of factors, among of which we can single out the following:
1. Presence of structural divergences between the Abazin and Russian languages as consequence of their belonging to different language groups: Abazin to agglutinative, Russian to inflexional. The last explains us the presence in each language its own system of phonetic, lexical and grammatical facilities, that have specific peculiarities, the calculation of which in the process of their use in the act of communication is really necessary. Insufficient knowledge of these peculiarities is the reason of low level of practical proficiency both in Abazin and Russian languages.
2. Existing of bilingual learners´ linguistic experience of proficiency in mother tongue, which does not only help but also hamper proficiency in second language, because of the straight transfer of solidly formed speech skills of use of the mother tongue to the studied language. Students who don´t know the phenomenon of valency of word, who don´t know the semantics and stylistic peculiarities of words´ use, often use in their Russian speech the straight translation of principal meaning of used in some situation Abazin word, with the result that comes out пришел ногами (щапIыла дгIайтI) in spite of пришел пешком, уехал читать (апхьара дцатI) in spite of уехал учиться, сердцем подумал (гвы айтатI) вместо догадался, ударил в сердце (йгвы дастI) in spite of обидел etc.
3. One of the essential factors of interference´s manifestations is a psychological barrier, which forms the mistakes in Russian speech, with the result that students are pressed for shyness in communication at Russian language. In connection with this problem teacher should know everything about interference.
Out of mistakes, that can be met in Russian speech of students and that have the phenomenon of language interference as the principal reason, very big layer form syntactical mistakes, therefore we can single out syntactical (syntagmatic) interference separately.
Syntagmatic trancfertive interference is connected to the breach of compatibility of elements of second language in the speech circuitry under the influence of corresponded models of compatibility of mother tongue. Interference is revealed while the perception or realization of following principle types of word combinations:
1) Russian prepositional - Abazin unprepositional. There are no prepositions in Abazin language, with the result that their functional load remain incomprehensible or indistinct until it will be fasten in the process of practical presence (both oral and writing) language. Indeed, the order of succession of components of word combination is often different, especially in attributive complexes, in which in Russian language definition, that is expressed with noun, stands basically postposition, but in Abazin language it stands only preposition: доски для окон - ахъышв агъвква; блюдце с полки - акIьарышвта йыхвынгылаз ачIат; картофель с поля - рхъа кIартIоф. In the cases when the facility of definition is carried out by adjective, in Russian language the usual place of its disposition is the position before the defined word, though postposition of adjective is not excepted. In Abazin language in the similar attributive word combinations the adjective always stands after the defined noun: светлая комната - пещ лашара; кислое яблоко - чIва чIвкъьа; трудная задача - хIисап баргвы; широкая улица - урам тыбгIа; высокое дерево - цIла хIгIа; золотые часы - сахIат хьапщ;
2) Russian word combinations, compound components of which have case form, and Abazin ones, components of which have no case form: страница дневника - амшгIвыра анапа; видеть друга - анбжьагIв йбара; угол дома - атдзы ашухъа; недалеко от дома - атдзы йачвыхъарамкIва. The absence of case forms of compound components of word combination at Abazin language can be explained by the absence of case system in whole. Meanings of cases of Russian language in Abazin language are reproduced with different preverbs, postpositions and order of succession of words;
3) in Russian language - word combianation, but in Abazin language - complicated word. For example: овечья шкура - уасчва; пять пальцев - хвмачва; каменная ограда - хIахъвгвара; войлочные сапоги - амсы.
In Russian and Abazin languages occur difference between the frequency of use one or another part of speech in the structure of word combination. For example, word combinations which include numerals are equally used in both languages. It concern only to cardinal and ordinal numerals. Meanwhile it´s necessary to mention the following: in Russian language ordinal numerals conform to defined word in genre, number and case, but in Abazin they remain without changes. There is no syntactic connection of agreement in Abazin language, but it exists in Russian. Syntactic connection of words is carried out with other facilities - with coordination, with order of succession of words, with semantic parataxis. The frequency of use remainder of numerals´ discharge in Abazin language is smallish.
Word combinations with participles are widely spread in Russian language; these word combinations express defined relationship, that are complicated with the indication of time and of active of passive voice. In Abazin language the frequency of use participle in similar word combinations is also big. But in Abazin language there is category of gender, abazin verb is indifferent when it comes to voices. Thereby, participle have no passive and active voices.
Syntactic difference between Russian and Abazin languages becomes apparent at the order of disposition of sentence´s parts with respect to each other, at the types and forms of grammatical connection of words in word combination. There is rather free disposition of parts of sentences in Russian language. In Abazin language there are defined limitations to separated parts of sentence. Thus, predicate as usual occupies absolute end of the sentence; definition, which is expressed with the adjective, always follows after the defined word; definition, which is expressed with the noun, substantivized word or participle, occupies the position before the deined part of sentence.
In Russian language the facility of predicate can be carried out with all independent, and in some cases service parts of speech, but in Abazin language verb is the only part of speech, which can fully function as a predicate. Noun parts of speech in the position of predicate are covered with different classes, personal and temporal affixes and become verb.
Transferative interference at the speech is conditioned by specific of system of mother tongue, and its typical manifestations are character for all members of these linguistic generality.
Transfertative interference cause mistakes at the use of grammatical forms in syntactical word combinations: taken away for the expression of thoughts Russian words are collided to the grammatical model of Abazin language, in the issue words are used at the misplaced for these construction form, and sometimes syntactic structure of word combination provided to be alien.
Comparative analysis of factors of Russian and Abazin languages demonstrates that one interlingual difference can be methodically relevant for bearers of one of comparative languages and irrelevant for bearers of other. Thus, for example, adjective in Russian language in contrast to adjective in Abazin language, has the categories of gender, number and case. These difference is methodically relevant for Abazin audience, but irrelevant for Russian one. Abazin students, who are not used to distinguish categories of case, gender and number of adjective, don´t distinguish them in Russian language, with the result that mistakes appear in the system of agreement of Russian words: красивый дочь, большой машина, чистый окно etc. In Abazin language adjectives are not conformed to defined words as it happens in Russian language but unite with the noun to one grammatical word: пхIа пшдза, машина ду, хъышв цкьа. The most difficulties appear in those cases, when grammatical gender of word in Russian language is morphologically unmarked. In these cases all Russian words, that end to -ь (the soft sign), Abazin students apprehend as the words of male gender. For example: мой вуаль, горячий печь, маленький мышь inspite of: моя вуаль, горячая печь, маленькая мышь etc.
Analogous situation can be observed in the prepositional-case system of languages. Russian combinations of names with prepositions have no correspondence in Abazin language. The meanings of Russian prepositions in Abazin language are transferred with directional and locative preverbs, postpositions, different grammatical categories, order of succession of words.
Thus, in Russian language word combinations with dependent noun in the genitive case are rather different by the character of expressed relations. This is because of that in genitive case are used a lot of prepositions: из, из-за, из-под, от, с, до, у, без, для, ради, около, ввиду etc. In contrast to Russian one Abazine language has no system of declination and dependent noun in the composition of word combination can´t have grammatical form of some case. For example, spatial meaning of preposition «из» and generative case in such word combinations of Russian language as «выехали из леса» in Abazin language are expressed with directional preverb «гIа»: «абна йгIалцIтI».
The analysis of word combinations in Russian and Abazin language shows that side by side with their likenesses there are divergences that cause interference in the Russian speech of Abazins.
Structure-typological analysis of word combinations in Russian and Abazin language allows to do the following resume:
1. Reported in the process of studying of Russian language of Abazin students the information about features of likeness and differences between the analysed languages allow not only to specify the presentation of students about the languages, but also - by the way of prevention of possible interference - to promote more reliable learning of Russian language;
2. Establishment of likenesses and differences between Russian and Abazin languages carries theoretical character, but at the same time it is necessary for definition of methodical relevance;
3. Teaching of identical versions of word combinations is not a methodical problem, because the level of transfertative interference is minimal.
Materials of researches show that the majority of mistakes fall on the grammar, particularly on the wrong use of syntactic connection between the components of word combination in Russian language.
Mistakes at the agreement
The big percent of mistakes in the oral and writing speech of students is wrong agreement of dependent word with the principle. We can single out the most typical mistakes.
1. The breach of agreement in gender:
а) use of adjective, pronoun, numeral in the form of male gender with the male gender noun: большой помощь, белый ночь, хороший память, маленький мышь;
б) use of adjective, pronoun, numeral in the form of female gender with the male gender noun: крупная конь, длинная путь, хорошая дядя, с красивой юношей.
The reason of similar mistakes is the absence of grammatical category of gender in Abazin language and substitution of its meaning with the category of class, which is characterized with absolutely different peculiarities.
в) breach of agreement of predicate, which is manifested with the verb of past tense, with the subject: доктор (more often the female doctor) пришла сразу же; молодежь долго танцевал и песни пел;
г) wrong combination of definition, which is manifested with the participle, with the defined word: учитель, открывшая дверь, была готова к поездке; медведь, проспавшая в берлоге всю зиму, вышла на охоту сейчас;
д) mistakes while the substitution of noun with the the personal pronoun of singular third person: мама работает на хлебозаводе. Он приходит домой поздно.
2. The breach of agreement in numeral:
а) breach of agreement in numeral between the definition and defined word, which is expressed with the plural noun. Although, combinative possibilities of Russian language differ from the mother tongue, some words are used by students without necessary semantic correction, by the influence of habits of mother tongue.
Thus, nouns ворота, чернила, сани, ножницы in Russian language have the only plural form, but in Abazin language these nouns have both plural and singular forms. Therefore in Russian speech of students are observed cases of wrong use of such nouns as: она принесла мне маленькую ножницу; малыш пролез через большое ворота;
б) breach of agreement in numeral between predicate and homogenous subjects: высокий дуб, береза и тополь качался от ветра, приехал отец ученика и несколько свидетелей.
Mistakes at the government
1. Mixing of prepositions «в» and «на» in combinations with verbs of motion: поехать в юг; приехать из моря, готовить в кухне;
2. Use of accusative case with the verbs that govern genitive case: она не заслужила это высокое звание; мы ждали письмо от брата с армии; поступило заявление от ученика;
3. Addition of excess preposition: мы смотрим на телевизор; все радовались от моих успехов;
4. Omission of prepositions «в» and «на» in combinations with verbs that govern accusative case with these prepositions for the designation of place, where the action is directed: иду речку; запрыгиваю машину; вбегаю комнату;
5. Mixing of prepositions «с» and «из»: девочка ушла с класса; со съезда делегаты направились на возложение; во время дождя из крыши капало;
6. Mistakes in use of prepositions «в» and «на» in combinations with verbs that govern prepositional case: участвовать на олимпиаде; сидеть на машине за рулем; хорошо разбираться на компьютере;
7. Use of preposition with the noun, which means implement or mean of action: малыш хочет писать с ручкой; он рубил дрова с топором.
As researched material shows, the most difficult grammatical material for Abazin students is learning of case system of Russian language. Case mistakes that are issued with interference of peculiarities of mother tongue are held rather long in the students´ speech.
Learning of language models, which are used for constructing of sentences of different structure, supposes learning of grammatical connection between the components of sentence, because structural essence of sentence so that words in its composition form the circuitry of syntactical connection. Therefore, the learning of sentence´s structure first means learning of syntactical connections of words. Meanwhile the connection of words is the main difficulty for the students of national school, what shows mistakes that are made while the construction of Russian sentences. As we have already said the majority of these mistakes by their character are connected with peculiarities of agreement and government.
For the development of effective, preventing possible mistakes in the students´ speech methodic of learning syntactical connection of words in Russian sentence it is necessary to take into account, that developed inflexional system of Russian language causes very difficult character of syntactical connections and sentences. The connection between words is carried out with different grammatical facilities and ways; dependent words are characterized by the variety of grammatical forms. Thus, while the agreement the form of dependent word entirely depend on form of principal word.
If we take into account that in Abazin language the agreement of words in the word combination´s and sentence´s structure have different character than in Russian, hardships that students have will become clear.
More difficult is the character of government. While the agreement the form of dependent word is prompted by the form of principal word (that is defined with the formal indications); but while the government formal (grammatical) indications of joining the connection of words are not object.
We should take into consideration the process of learning conformities to syntactical connections of words in Russian sentence by the Abazin students progresses with the interfering influence of mother tongue. Just exactly the influence causes the majority of mistakes in the forming of syntactical connections of words.
The analysis of condition of teaching of syntax of word combination of Russian and Abazin language allows to make following summaries:
1) realization of principles of succession and availability secures by the phased learning of syntax;
2) word combination as structural unit of modern Russian and Abazin languages helps to learn the forms of words in their principle syntactical function;
3) learning of different ways of connection of words leads to the learning of norms of words´ compatibility in the composition of sentence, and it causes the development of skills of coherent speech;
4) the connection of words in the sentence should be learn practically. That means that the functioning of one or another grammatical facility of connection should be shown interactive at the process of constructing of sentence.
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