The health of schoolchilds is at the direct relation from the conditions of education, nourishment, motion activity, right interchange of load and rest, conditions of family upbringing. While this the huge importance has the taking into account of positive personality traits of students and pupils.
The level of health of child population at the region causes concern of specialists. By the statistic facts only 20% of children are healthy. 80% of them have functional abnormalities and aberration in the condition of health, the percent of chronic pathology is very high. The majority of children of 6-7 age are not ready to school.
At the same time health of each person is defined with the relation of external and internal action his organism on the one hand, and with the possibilities of organism to resist undesirable influences, protect itself from them, and if it´s possible to intensify the influence of healthy factors one the other hand. The degree of success of this activity - the removal of harmful influences (the correction of environment) and the rise of stability to them (the train, the rise of adaptive abilities of organism) - defines the direction of efforts to safe and strengthening of health.
In consideration of factors that have unfavourable influence on health (pathogenic factors), at the aspect of health protection of students, it´s necessary to divide them into two big groups: factors, which are connected with the educational process, educational establishments (they are often called "insideschool"), and all remainder factors, which potentially have influence on the students´ health.
On the basis of many researches and of the practice of Yakimanskaya I.S. there singled out some of general pathogens that doing no good to the students´ health: the low level of motivation to the saving and strengthening of individual health; the contraction of conception of health; the influence of unfavourable for the health anthropogenic factors; the absence of integral and purposeful system of forming the students´ culture of health; the imperfection of legislative, normative - legal base, which regulates the activity by the protection of health of population, particularly of children and teenagers of school age; the incompleteness of health culture of teachers, the problems of their health level.
If they speak much about the students´ health an try to do its maintenance and strengthening, then to the problem of teachers´ health they don´t attend. It´s hard to wait for noticeable successes in the care of students´ health without change the attitude to the teacher´s health.
Side by side with such factors as the genitive conditionality, unfavourable social, ecological conditions of development and others like them, unfavourable and essential influence to the students´ health has other group of factors - "insideschool" that have direct attitude to the problem of health of preserve educational technologies. With the negative influence of these factors, to which we can attribute intensification and irrational organization of educational process, discrepancy of teaching methods of age possibilities of students etc, specialists connect with till 40% of child - teenage pathology. We should take into account that the tiresommenes of lesson is not the result of some one reason (the difficulty of material or psychological tension), but it´s a defined combination, the sum of different factors.
The intensification of educational process goes different ways. The first is the increase of number of academic hours (lessons, out of school activities, optional classes etc). Actual school load (by the facts of Institute of age physiology Russian Academy of Education, the Science center of health protection of children and teens of Russian Academy o Medical Sciences and the a number of regional institutes), particularly at the lyceums and gymnasiums, at gymnasium classes, at the classes with the profound learning of some subjects, is 6,2-6,7 hours a day at the primary school, 7,2 - 8,3 hours a day at the middle school and 8,6 - 9,2 hours a day at the secondary school. The important increase of educational load in such institutions and classes does not pass away: these children often have big prevalence and evidence of neuropsychic abnormalities, big fatigability that is accompanied with immune and hormone dysfunctions, lower resistibility to diseases and other abnormalities. Among the students of these schools there 1,2 - 2 times more children with lower functional eyesight, chronic pathology, than in the mass school (though in the mass school everything is not good). In the majority of researches there noted the clear dependence of abnormalities at the health level on the exchange and intensity of educational load.
The other variant of intensification of educational process is real decrease of number of hours while the preservation or increase of volume of school material. The frequent consequence of intensification is the appearance the states of fatigue, tiredness, overwork. Just overwork causes preconditions of development of acute and chronic abnormalities of health, the development of nerve, psychosomatic and other diseases.
The danger for health of this state was shown by G.N.Speransky. According to his researches if child has the syndrome of fatigue, which is expressed by the lowering of capacity of work, heightened distraction, irritability, sluggishness or, on the contrary, by the motive and speech excitement, headache, the loss of appetite or its extreme increase and by many other symptoms, then even the nine-hour sleep can´t decrease the fatigue. At that time there have been already developed the whole complex of measures of struggle against the excessive fatigue.
Of course the fatigue can´t be explained with some one factor, it is explained with the combination of different reasons, among which the considerable place hold mental and physical overload that are inadequate to the possibilities of this organism, the static position of body while working, "monotonia". The phone of development of fatigue is usually an indifferent or oppressed emotional state.
Specialists have proved that the health of child, its social-psychological adaptation, normal growth and development generally defined with the environment, in which he spends rather big time. For child from 6 to 17 this environment is the school as the environment of education, because with the stay at the educational establishments there connected more than 70% of time of child´s wakefulness. At the same time at this period there occurs the most intensive growth and development, the forming of health to all remain life, the organism of child is more sensible to the exogenous factors of environment.
While the analyzing the forms of assessment of health and physical state of students we can draw a conclusion that students have chronic diseases, and also acquired diseases at the period of education at the comprehensive school. Answering a question "What do you consider we should change in school to improve the students´ health?" student recommend to decrease educational load.
The calculation of individual peculiarities of students promotes the protection of children´s health, but in practice it creates the difficulties at the realization of this process, because one pedagogue gives lessons to big group of students.
To individualize the educational activity it´s necessary: to differentiate it, that means to group students at the base of their peculiarities or complexes of these peculiarities for teaching by the different educational plans and programs; to individualize the educational activity inside the group; to teach at the individual different rate: fast or slow.
At the pedagogy there especially critical stands the problem of realization of personal oriented education. As I. S. Yakimanskaya thinks, the admission of student as the main character of all educational process is the personal oriented pedagogy. For building a model of personal oriented education she considers that it´s necessary to distinguish following concepts. Different level approach is the orientation to the different level of complexity of program material that easy to access for pupil. The differentiated approach is the separation of groups of children at the base of external (more exact mixed) differentiation: by knowledge, abilities, the type of educational establishment. The individual approach is the distribution of children by the similar groups: progress, abilities, social (professional) direction. The subject-personal approach is the attitude to each child as to uniqueness, unlikeness, individuality. At the realization of this approach firstly work should be systemic, enveloped all educational levels. Secondly, there is necessary to have a special educational environment as the educational plan, organization of conditions for manifestations of individual selectivity of each student, its steadiness, without what it´s impossible to talk about educational style. Thirdly, we need specially prepared teacher who understand and share goals and values of personal oriented education.
By the personal oriented education we mean that type of educational process, that has the personality of student and personality of teacher that single out as its subjects; the aim of education is the development of child´s personality, his individuality and unlikeness; at the process of education there take into account value orientations of child and structure of his beliefs at the base of which there formed his "inside model of world", while this the processes of education and teaching mutually conform to the count of mechanisms of cognition, the peculiarities of mental and behavioral strategies of students, and relations teacher-student are based at the principles of collaboration and freedom of choice. While the preparation and carrying personal oriented lesson the teacher should single out basic directions of his activity, advancing at the first shot the student, and then activity, defining his own position. It´s important to note that practically all now existed educational technologies are external oriented relative to the personality experience of students. Personal oriented approach at the education is impossible without exposure of subject experience of each student, that means his abilities and skills at the educational activity. Pedagogy, which is oriented to the personality of student should single out his subject experience and give him an opportunity to choose the ways and forms of educational work and the character of answers. While this there are estimated not only results, but also the process of their progress.
The model of personal oriented school is rather different from other existed models and pedagogical systems. Firstly, that it give to a child the big freedom of choice at the process of teaching. At its network not student adapts to a established educational style of teacher, but teacher who is possessed of different technological instruments, coordinates his ways and methods of work with the cognitive style of educational of child. Personal oriented lesson in contrast to traditional firstly changes the type of cooperation "teacher - student". From the command style teacher goes over to collaboration, orienting at the analysis not so much results, as procedural activity of student. There changes the position of student, from the assiduous execution to the active creativity, his thinking becomes different: reflexive, that means directed to the result. The disposition that forms at the lesson also changes. The most important thing is that teacher should not only give knowledge, but also creates optimal conditions for the development of students´ personalities. What are the differences between of personal oriented lesson from the traditional?
1. Definition of objectives. The aim is the development of student, creating such conditions that at the each lesson there will form the educational activity, which transforms it into a subject that is interested in learning, self-development. At the lesson there is regular dialogue - teacher - student.
2. The activity of teacher. Organizer of educational activity, in which student basing at the combined groundwork retrieves independently. Central figure - student! Teacher specially creats the situation of success, empathizes, encourages.
3. The activity of student. The student is the subject of teacher´s activity. The activity goes not from the teacher but from child. There used methods of problem-searching and project education, which develops the character.
4. The subject relations "teacher - student". Working with the whole class teacher actually organizes the work of each creating conditions for development of personality abilities of student, including forming of his reflexive thinking and own opinion.
While the preparation and holding of personal oriented lesson teacher should single out basic directions of his activity, spotlight the student, and then the activity, defining his own position.
Thereby for the protection and strengthening of health of comprehensive schools´ students there is necessary to use technologies of personal oriented education, which means special construction of study text, didactic and methodological material to its use, types of study dialogue, forms of control of personality development of schoolchild. Pedagogy oriented to the personality of student should reveal his subject experience and give him an opportunity to choose ways and forms of study work and character of answers. While this there are assessed not only results but also the process of their progress.
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- Yakimanskaya I.S. Personal oriented education at the modern school. Moscow, 1996.
This work was represented at the international science conference "Modern problems of education and science and education", Moscow, February 16-18, 2010. Came to the editor office on 20.01.2010.